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It is often preferable to avoid using divers to undertake sub-sea activities, the alternatives being autonomous or remotely operated robotic vehicles and manipulators. This will only be achievable if robust communications can be established through seawater. Presently for such sub-sea activities it is necessary to use acoustic modems, which are only capable(More)
Environmental concerns in aquatic environments have increased and require new and cost-effective real-time monitoring systems. Furthermore the Water Framework Directive (WFD) across the European Union (EU) and the growing international emphasis on the management of water quality and its sustainability are giving rise to a market for intelligent underwater(More)
The microwave plasma system operates at various ranges of frequencies including 0.896, 2.45, and 10 GHz, and uses a waveguide-based applicator to generate a microwave plasma jet (MPJ) at atmospheric pressure. The plasma is formed outside the cavity due to the strong electric field, generated by the microwave power, which occurs between the gas nozzle and an(More)
This paper reports on testing of the performance of SmartLife® e-textile material. In particular, the response of the integrated conductive pathways at microwave frequencies in the region of 9 kHz to 6 GHz is investigated for both biomedical sensing and signal transmission purposes. The experimental results confirm the viability of exciting the e-textile(More)
The pulse echo non-destructive evaluation (NDE) technique has been used within the automotive industry for many years, but this is an offline approach, where tests are carried out after welding. Recent research has been carried out to monitor spot welding online. This paper proposes a portable online, real time, through-transmission, continuous wave(More)
The UK's water regulator OFWAT figures for 2010 shows that over 28% of water delivered by all water and sewage companies was lost due to leakage. This paper describes the development of an electromagnetic sensor that combines leaks detection and asset management for the water industry. This sensor will be deployed inside the water main and inspections(More)
Researchers at LJMU are investigating the use of a low power microwave sensor for detecting lactate in cerebrospinal fluid (CSF), which holds key indicators relating to a patient's future health. A multipurpose sensor platform is current being developed with the capability to detect the concentration of materials in volumes ≤ 1ml. This paper presents(More)
We have designed a 2.45GHz waveguide-based applicator to generate a Microwave Plasma Jet (MPJ) at atmospheric pressure. The MPJ system consists of a 1-6kW magnetron power supply, a circulator, a watercooled matched load and the applicator. The applicator includes a tuning section, which is required to reduce the reflected power, and the nozzle section. The(More)
Multiphase measurement has been an aim of the oil and gas production industries for many years. A variety of different techniques have been developed in an attempt to design a meter which is a realistic alternative to the bulky, off-line but accurate test separator to determine the amount of oil, water and gas in a pipeline. Liverpool John Moores(More)
Resistance spot welding is the main joining technique used for the fabrication of body-in-white structures in the automotive industry with a typical passenger car requiring approximately 4000 welds. Good welds are characterized by the diameter of the solidified weld nugget but this dimension not only depends upon the current and pressure applied which can(More)
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