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Heat shock proteins are proposed to limit injury resulting from diverse environmental stresses, but direct metabolic evidence for such a cytoprotective function in vertebrates has been largely limited to studies of cultured cells. We generated lines of transgenic mice to express human 70-kDa heat shock protein constitutively in the myocardium. Hearts(More)
Metabolism of [2-13C]-, [3-13C]-, and [1,2,3-13C]propionate in perfused rat livers and [2-13C]-acetate in perfused rat hearts has been examined in tissue extracts by 13C NMR. Label from [2-13C]-propionate was preferentially incorporated into the C2 carbon of lactate, alanine, and aspartate in liver tissue while label from [3-13C]propionate appeared(More)
Deuterium isotope effects and 13C isotope effects with deuterium- and protium-labeled malate have been obtained for both NAD- and NADP-malic enzymes by using a variety of alternative dinucleotide substrates. With nicotinamide-containing dinucleotides as the oxidizing substrate, the 13C effect decreases when deuterated malate is the substrate compared to the(More)
The mechanism of the oxidative decarboxylation reaction catalyzed by the NAD-malic enzyme from Ascaris suum has been examined with several different divalent metal ion activators and dinucleotide substrates. Primary deuterium and tritium isotope effects have been obtained and, in combination with the partitioning ratios of the oxalacetate intermediate to(More)
A thiol group at the malate-binding site of the NAD-malic enzyme from Ascaris suum has been modified to thiocyanate. The modified enzyme generally exhibits slight increases in KNAD and Ki metal and decreases in Vmax as the metal size increases from Mg2+ to Mn2+ to Cd2+, indicative of crowding in the site. The Kmalate value increases 10- to 30-fold,(More)
An n.m.r. method is presented for monitoring the extent to which fatty acids undergo beta-oxidation without release of shorter-chain intermediates. It is based upon a 13C isotopomer analysis of glutamate from tissue presented with a mixture of [2,4,6,8-13C]octanoate and [1,2,3,4-13C]octanoate. The method does not require steady-state metabolic or isotopic(More)
The kinetic mechanism of NADPH-dependent aldehyde reductase II and aldose reductase, purified from human placenta, has been studied using L-glucuronate and DL-glyceraldehyde as their respective substrates. For aldehyde reductase II, the initial velocity and product inhibition studies (using NADP and gulonate) indicate that the enzyme reaction sequence is(More)
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