S Punnen

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Pharmacologic experiments were carried out to test the degree of interdependence of rostral vasopressor and caudal vasodepressor neuron pools in the ventrolateral medulla (VLPA and VLDA, respectively). In two groups of urethane-anesthetized rats, the gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA) agonist muscimol (10 ng/site) was bilaterally microinjected into both the(More)
The cardiovascular effects associated with the microinjection (100 nl) of carbachol, physostigmine and atropine into the pressor area in the ventrolateral medulla (VLPA) were studied. In urethane anesthetized rats, VLPAs were functionally identified bilaterally by microinjection of the neuroexcitatory amino acid L-glutamate (300 ng/site). L-Glutamate(More)
Physostigmine, a choline-esterase inhibitor, is known to elevate endogenous levels of acetylcholine. Intravenously administered physostigmine causes a rise in blood pressure via its action in the central nervous system. Exact site of this action of physostigmine is not known. In this paper, it was demonstrated that microinjections of tetrodotoxin (a fast(More)
Intravenous injections of clonidine produce an initial transient increase in blood pressure followed by a long-lasting hypotension and bradycardia. The initial pressor response is due to activation of vascular alpha 1-adrenergic receptors while the hypotension and bradycardia are caused by the central actions of clonidine. Although, hypothalamus, nucleus(More)
The cardiovascular effects of the injection of an enkephalin analogue, [D-ala2-met5]enkephalinamide (DAME) into the pressor area of the rostral ventrolateral medulla were studied in urethane-anesthetized and decerebrate rats. The excitatory amino acid L-glutamate was used to identify the ventrolateral medulla. The pressor responses to L-glutamate were(More)
Pressor (VLPA) and depressor (VLDA) areas of the ventrolateral medulla were identified by microinjections of L-glutamate in urethane-anesthetized rats. Cardiovascular effects of opiate agonists microinjected into the same sites were then studied. Agents used to stimulate mu, delta, sigma, kappa, and beta-endorphin (epsilon) receptors were morphiceptin,(More)
In urethane-anesthetized rats, vasodepressor neuron pools were located bilaterally in and adjacent to the A1 area of the ventrolateral medulla by injecting the neuroexcitatory amino acid, L-glutamate. Ventrolateral vasodepressor areas included the caudalateral part of the nucleus reticularis gigantocellularis, the rostrolateral part of the nucleus(More)
Cardiac vagolytic effect of four commonly used neuromuscular blockers, (viz. D-tubocurarine, decamethonium, pancuronium and gallamine) was compared in midcollicular decerebrate rats. The intravenous doses of neuromuscular blockers used (d-tubocurarine: 0.1 mg/kg; decamethonium: 2 mg/kg; pancuronium: 0.1 mg/kg; gallamine: 20 mg/kg) were sufficient to produce(More)
Opiate receptor stimulation by microinjections of a delta-receptor agonist, D-Ala2-D-Leu5-enkephalin (DADLE) into the caudal depressor (A1) area of the ventrolateral medulla produced a hypertensive response which was prevented as well as reversed by the blockade of cholinergic receptors in the rostral pressor (C1) area. These results suggest that the(More)
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