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The clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeats (CRISPR)-associated enzyme Cas9 is an RNA-guided endonuclease that uses RNA-DNA base-pairing to target foreign DNA in bacteria. Cas9-guide RNA complexes are also effective genome engineering agents in animals and plants. Here we use single-molecule and bulk biochemical experiments to determine(More)
The ability of proteins to locate specific targets among a vast excess of nonspecific DNA is a fundamental theme in biology. Basic principles governing these search mechanisms remain poorly understood, and no study has provided direct visualization of single proteins searching for and engaging target sites. Here we use the postreplicative mismatch repair(More)
CRISPR-Cas adaptive immune systems protect bacteria and archaea against foreign genetic elements. In Escherichia coli, Cascade (CRISPR-associated complex for antiviral defense) is an RNA-guided surveillance complex that binds foreign DNA and recruits Cas3, a trans-acting nuclease helicase for target degradation. Here, we use single-molecule imaging to(More)
Following the widespread use of immunosuppressive therapy and broad-spectrum antimycotic prophylaxis, C. glabrata has emerged as an important opportunistic pathogen in the oral mucosa. In the past, studies on the virulence factors and host-pathogen interactions of this organism were scarce, but continued to rise in recent years. Denture-wearing,(More)
DNA strand exchange plays a central role in genetic recombination across all kingdoms of life, but the physical basis for these reactions remains poorly defined. Using single-molecule imaging, we found that bacterial RecA and eukaryotic Rad51 and Dmc1 all stabilize strand exchange intermediates in precise three-nucleotide steps. Each step coincides with an(More)
1. Summary 3072 2. Introduction 3072 3. Recognition of DNA Sequences and Structures 3073 3.1. Classical View of Interactions 3074 3.2. Encounter Landscape 3074 3.3. Binding Landscape 3074 3.4. Significance of Distinguishing between the Landscapes 3074 3.5. Building to Physiological Complexity 3075 4. DNA Structure 3075 4.1. Forces on DNA 3075 4.2. Effects(More)
Oropharyngeal candidiasis is an extremely common complication in patients receiving chemotherapy for leukemia. Candida tropicalis appears to be the major infectious agent when these patients develop candidemia. In this article, a case of C tropicalis fungemia with oropharyngeal manifestations is presented. The relationship of oropharyngeal candidiasis to(More)
Homologous recombination (HR) mediates the exchange of genetic information between sister or homologous chromatids. During HR, members of the RecA/Rad51 family of recombinases must somehow search through vast quantities of DNA sequence to align and pair single-strand DNA (ssDNA) with a homologous double-strand DNA (dsDNA) template. Here, we use(More)
In physiological settings, all nucleic acids motor proteins must travel along substrates that are crowded with other proteins. However, the physical basis for how motor proteins behave in these highly crowded environments remains unknown. Here, we use real-time single-molecule imaging to determine how the ATP-dependent translocase RecBCD travels along DNA(More)