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A computer program that allows the preparation of buffers containing known concentrations of metal-ligand complexes at defined pH values and temperatures is described. Ligands are defined as compounds that bind metals and may include AMP, ADP, ATP, GMP, GDP, GTP, EGTA, EDTA, BAPTA, phosphate, sulfate, chloride, monocarboxylic acids, dicarboxylic acids,(More)
A simple computer program that calculates the kinetic parameters of enzyme reactions is described. Parameters are determined by nonlinear, least-squares regression using either Marquardt-Levenberg or Gauss-Newton algorithms to find the minimum sum of squares. Three types of enzyme reactions can be analyzed: single substrate reactions (Michaelis-Menten and(More)
Fifty-five paleolimnological records from lakes in the circumpolar Arctic reveal widespread species changes and ecological reorganizations in algae and invertebrate communities since approximately anno Domini 1850. The remoteness of these sites, coupled with the ecological characteristics of taxa involved, indicate that changes are primarily driven by(More)
Hatchlings of the painted turtle (Chrysemys picta marginata) are unique as the only reptile and highest vertebrate life form known to tolerate the natural freezing of extracellular body fluids during winter hibernation. Turtles survived frequent exposures to temperatures as low as -6 degrees C to -8 degrees C in their shallow terrestrial nests over the(More)
Ctr1 (copper transporter 1) mediates high-affinity copper uptake. Ctr2 (copper transporter 2) shares sequence similarity with Ctr1, yet its function in mammalian cells is poorly understood. In African green monkey kidney COS-7 cells and rat tissues, Ctr2 migrated as a predominant band of approximately 70 kDa and was most abundantly expressed in placenta and(More)
Catecholamines (noradrenaline, NA; adrenaline, AD; dopamine, DA) influence the metabolic and cardiovascular responses to exercise. However, changes in catecholamine metabolism during exercise are unclear. Plasma normetanephrine (NMET), metanephrine (MET) and catecholamine responses to a laboratory-based model of games-type exercise were examined. Twelve(More)
The catecholamine metabolites normetanephrine (NMET) and metanephrine (MET) increase in response to acute exercise. However, changes in catecholamine 'nephrines' during sprint training are unclear. Therefore, the aim of this study was to examine the plasma nephrine and catecholamine (noradrenaline, NA; adrenaline, AD) responses to a laboratory-based cycle(More)
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To assess the presence or absence of lags in biotic responses to rapid climatic changes, we: (1) assume that the d18O in biogenically precipitated carbonates record global or hemispheric climatic change at the beginning and at the end of the Younger Dryas without any lag at our two study sites of Gerzensee and Leysin, Switzerland; (2) derive a time scale by(More)
A clear understanding of how diet alters gastrointestinal communities is important given the suggested link between gut community composition and a wide variety of disease pathologies. To characterize this link for commonly consumed dietary fiber sources, we investigated the change in the fecal community of rats fed diets containing 5% nonnutritive fiber(More)