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Stromules (stroma-filled tubules) are highly dynamic structures extending from the surface of all plastid types examined so far, including proplastids, chloroplasts, etioplasts, leucoplasts, amyloplasts, and chromoplasts. Stromules are usually 0.35-0.85 microm in diameter and of variable length, from short beak-like projections to linear or branched(More)
Stromules are highly dynamic stroma-filled tubules that extend from the surface of all plastid types in all multi-cellular plants examined to date. The stromule frequency (percentage of plastids with stromules) has generally been regarded as characteristic of the cell and tissue type. However, the present study shows that various stress treatments,(More)
Phosphoinositides are important regulators of numerous cellular functions. The yeast class III phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase Vps34p, and its human orthologue hVPS34, are implicated in control of several key pathways, including endosome to lysosome transport, retrograde endosome to Golgi traffic, multivesicular body formation, and autophagy. We have(More)
OBJECTIVE To evaluate the antiulcer activity of Samanea saman (Jacq) Merr bark on ethanol and stress induced gastric lesions in albino rats. MATERIALS AND METHODS Gastric lesions were induced in rats by oral administration of absolute ethanol (5 ml/kg) and stress induced by water immersion. The antiulcer activity of methanolic extract of Samanea saman(More)
Evasion of the acquired immune response in African trypanosomes is principally mediated by antigenic variation, the sequential expression of distinct variant surface glycoproteins (VSGs) at extremely high density on the cell surface. Sequence diversity between VSGs facilitates escape of a subpopulation of trypanosomes from antibody-mediated killing.(More)
BACKGROUND Trypanosomatids utilise polycistronic transcription for production of the vast majority of protein-coding mRNAs, which operates in the absence of gene-specific promoters. Resolution of nascent transcripts by polyadenylation and trans-splicing, together with specific rates of mRNA turnover, serve to generate steady state transcript levels that can(More)
Immune evasion in African trypanosomes is principally mediated by antigenic variation, but rapid internalization of surface-bound immune factors may contribute to survival. Endocytosis is upregulated approximately 10-fold in bloodstream compared to procyclic forms, and surface coat remodeling accompanies transition between these life stages. Here we(More)
Stromules are stroma-filled tubules that extend from the surface of plastids and allow the transfer of proteins as large as 550 kDa between interconnected plastids. The aim of the present study was to determine if plastid DNA or plastid ribosomes are able to enter stromules, potentially permitting the transfer of genetic information between plastids.(More)
The African trypanosome Trypanosoma brucei, which persists within the bloodstream of the mammalian host, has evolved potent mechanisms for immune evasion. Specifically, antigenic variation of the variant-specific surface glycoprotein (VSG) and a highly active endocytosis and recycling of the surface coat efficiently delay killing mediated by anti-VSG(More)
The production of metabolites via in vitro culture is promoted by the availability of fully defined metabolic pathways. Withanolides, the major bioactive phytochemicals of Withania somnifera, have been well studied for their pharmacological activities. However, only a few attempts have been made to identify key candidate genes involved in withanolide(More)