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Shigekazu Nagata family, while the length and sequence of the cytoplasmic segments differ significantly. Department of Genetics Proteolysis of membrane-associated TNF produces Osaka University Medical School soluble TNF. The proteolysis is mediated by a membrane 2-2 Yamada-oka, Suita metalloproteinase (Gearing et al., 1994). Similarly, mem-Osaka 565(More)
Apoptotic cells expose phosphatidylserine and are swiftly engulfed by macrophages. Milk fat globule epidermal growth factor (EGF) factor 8 (MFG-E8) is a protein that binds to apoptotic cells by recognizing phosphatidylserine and that enhances the engulfment of apoptotic cells by macrophages. We report that tingible body macrophages in the germinal centers(More)
Innate immunity is stimulated not only by viral or bacterial components, but also by non-microbial danger signals (damage-associated molecular patterns). One of the damage-associated molecular patterns is chromosomal DNA that escapes degradation. In programmed cell death and erythropoiesis, DNA from dead cells or nuclei expelled from erythroblasts is(More)
In all animal cells, phospholipids are asymmetrically distributed between the outer and inner leaflets of the plasma membrane. This asymmetrical phospholipid distribution is disrupted in various biological systems. For example, when blood platelets are activated, they expose phosphatidylserine (PtdSer) to trigger the clotting system. The PtdSer exposure is(More)
Efficient phagocytosis of apoptotic cells is crucial for tissue homeostasis and the immune response. Rab5 is known as a key regulator of the early endocytic pathway and we have recently shown that Rab5 is also implicated in apoptotic cell engulfment; however, the precise spatio-temporal dynamics of Rab5 activity remain unknown. Here, using a newly developed(More)
The eye lens is composed of fibre cells, which develop from the epithelial cells on the anterior surface of the lens. Differentiation into a lens fibre cell is accompanied by changes in cell shape, the expression of crystallins and the degradation of cellular organelles. The loss of organelles is believed to ensure the transparency of the lens, but the(More)
In programmed cell death, a large number of cells undergo apoptosis, and are engulfed by macrophages to avoid the release of noxious materials from the dying cells. In definitive erythropoiesis, nuclei are expelled from erythroid precursor cells and are engulfed by macrophages. Phosphatidylserine is exposed on the surface of apoptotic cells and on the(More)
A classic feature of apoptotic cells is the cell-surface exposure of phosphatidylserine (PtdSer) as an "eat me" signal for engulfment. We show that the Xk-family protein Xkr8 mediates PtdSer exposure in response to apoptotic stimuli. Mouse Xkr8(-/-) cells or human cancer cells in which Xkr8 expression was repressed by hypermethylation failed to expose(More)
A large amount of chromosomal DNA is degraded during programmed cell death and definitive erythropoiesis. DNase II is an enzyme that digests the chromosomal DNA of apoptotic cells and nuclei expelled from erythroid precursor cells after macrophages have engulfed them. Here we show that DNase II-/-IFN-IR-/- mice and mice with an induced deletion of the DNase(More)
Definitive erythropoiesis usually occurs in the bone marrow or fetal liver, where erythroblasts are associated with a central macrophage in anatomical units called 'blood islands'. Late in erythropoiesis, nuclei are expelled from the erythroid precursor cells and engulfed by the macrophages in the blood island. Here we show that the nuclei are engulfed by(More)