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The distal photoreceptors in the tiered retina of Papilio exhibit different spectral sensitivities. There are at least two types of short-wavelength sensitive receptors: an ultraviolet receptor with a normal spectral shape and a violet receptor with a very narrow spectral bandwidth. Furthermore, a blue receptor, a double-peaked green receptor and a(More)
We compute the non-Gaussianity of the curvature perturbation generated by ekpy-rotic collapse with multiple fields. The transition from the multi-field scaling solution to a single-field dominated regime converts initial isocurvature field perturbations to an almost scale-invariant comoving curvature perturbation. In the specific model of two fields, φ 1(More)
A 200 Watts GaN high electron mobility transistor (HEMT) has been developed for X-band applications. The device consists of four dies of 0.35 um-gate GaN HEMT of 16 mm gate periphery together with input and output 2-stage impedance transformers assembled into a low thermal resistance package. The developed GaN HEMT provides 204W output power and 12dB small(More)
A scale-invariant spectrum of isocurvature perturbations is generated during collapse in the ekpyrotic scaling solution in models where multiple fields have steep negative exponential potentials. The scale invariance of the spectrum is realized by a tachyonic instability in the isocurvature field. This instability drives the scaling solution to the late(More)
We explore the initial conditions for cosmological N-body simulations suitable for calculating the higher-order cumulants of the density field. In general, the initial conditions based on the perturbation theory (PT) provide incorrect growth in next leading order, which are called transients. Before transients have been completely suppressed compared with(More)
We explore the possibility of putting constraints on dark energy models with statistical property of large scale structure in the non-linear region. In particular, we investigate the w dependence of non-Gaussianity of the smoothed density distribution generated by the nonlinear dynamics. In order to follow the non-linear evolution of the density(More)
High-density optical disc recorders using the blue-violet diode laser have been recently released and it is expected that Blu-ray Disc (BD) drives emerge in the PC market. We adopted in-house integrated modules of hybrid type that enable us to make mechanical parts and optical components thinner and compact. As a result, we have developed an optical pickup(More)
According to recent observations, the existence of the dark energy has been considered. Even though we have obtained the constraint of the equation of the state for dark energy (p = wρ) as −1 ≤ w ≤ −0.78 by combining WMAP data with other astronomical data, in order to pin down w, it is necessary to use other independent observational tools. For this(More)
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