S. Miyashita

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Clostridium botulinum produces a large toxin complex (L-TC) that increases paracellular permeability in intestinal epithelial cells by a mechanism that remains unclear. Here, we show that mitogen-activated protein kinases (MAPKs) are involved in this permeability increase. Paracellular permeability was measured by FITC-dextran flux through a monolayer of(More)
Botulinum neurotoxin (BoNT) binds to nontoxic nonhemagglutinin (NTNHA) protein in a pH-dependent manner, and yields the protease-resistant BoNT/NTNHA complex. Here, we screened short peptides that bind to the serotype D NTNHA (NTNHA-D) using random phage display technique. NTNHA was fixed onto electrode of quartz crystal microbalance (QCM) apparatus, and(More)
The effects of 20 days horizontal bed rest (BR) on postural reflex were studied by measuring fluctuation of center of gravity in the body during two legs or one leg upright standing in 10 young volunteers. The fluctuation was decided as total moving distance of the center recorded during 60sec standing on a force plate. The stability was measured by the(More)
Gender differences in the effect of 20 days bed rest (BR) on muscle strength were evaluated in voluntary 11 male and 7 female students. Maximum Isometric Voluntary Contractions (MVC) of 4 right arm muscles (RAM), 5 right leg muscles (RLM), and 2 body trunk muscles were measured with an isometric dynamometer, respectively. Muscle masses (MM) of right arm and(More)
The botulinum neurotoxin (BoNT) causes muscle paralysis and is the most potent toxin in nature. BoNT is associated with a complex of auxiliary "Non-Toxic" proteins, which constitute a large-sized toxin complex (L-TC). However, here we report that the "Non-Toxic" complex of serotype D botulinum L-TC, when administered to rats, exerts in-vivo toxicity on(More)
We study the relation between the acquisition and analysis of data and quantum theory using a probabilistic and deterministic model for photon polarizers. We introduce criteria for efficient processing of data and then use these criteria to demonstrate that efficient processing of the data contained in single events is equivalent to the observation that(More)
Investigating the effect of 20 days bed rest (BR) on kinesthesia and two-point discrimination, 10 young volunteers participated in this study as subjects. Angle position sensation of right knee was measured in the prone position during flexion and extension monitored by a goniometer after two-point discrimination in skin was determined on the same lower(More)
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