S Marc Breedlove

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Understanding the mechanisms that give rise to sex differences in the behavior of nonhuman animals may contribute to the understanding of sex differences in humans. In vertebrate model systems, a single factor—the steroid hormone testosterone—accounts for most, and perhaps all, of the known sex differences in neural structure and behavior. Here we review(More)
There is a sexually dimorphic motor nucleus in the fifth and sixth lumbar segments of the rat spinal cord, consisting of motoneurons innervating two striated perineal muscles, the levator ani and the bulbocavernosus. This nucleus, which is diminished or absent in female rats, has been named the spinal nucleus of the bulbocavernosus (SNB)3. We now report(More)
The ratio of the length of the second digit (2D) to the length of the fourth digit (4D) is greater in women than in men. Since androgens are involved in most somatic sex differences and since the sexual dimorphism in 2D:4D is stable from 2 years of age in humans, it was hypothesized that finger length pattern development might be affected by early androgen(More)
The actions of sex steroids on brain and behavior traditionally have been divided into organizational and activational effects. Organizational effects are permanent and occur early in development; activational effects are transient and occur throughout life. Over the past decade, experimental results have accumulated which do not fit such a simple(More)
A wide variety of sexual dimorphisms, structural differences between the sexes, have been described in the brains of many vertebrate species, including humans. In animal models of neural sexual dimorphism, gonadal steroid hormones, specifically androgens, play a crucial role in engendering these differences by masculinizing the nervous system of males.(More)
Reports of structural differences between the brains of men and women, heterosexual and homosexual men, and male-to-female transsexuals and other men have been offered as evidence that the behavioral differences between these groups are likely caused by differences in the early development of the brain. However, a possible confounding variable is the(More)
The lengths of the index finger (2D) and ring finger (4D) are sexually dimorphic in humans, and men have a smaller 2D:4D ratio compared to women. Prenatal androgens appear to be important in the development of the 2D:4D sex difference, since it has been reported in children as young as 2 years old, and since humans exposed to supernormal prenatal androgen(More)
There is indirect evidence that heightened exposure to early androgen may increase the probability that a girl will develop a homosexual orientation in adulthood. One such putative marker of early androgen exposure is the ratio of the length of the index finger (2D) to the ring finger (4D), which is smaller in male humans than in females, and is smaller in(More)
We created transgenic mice that overexpress WT androgen receptor (AR) exclusively in their skeletal muscle fibers. Unexpectedly, these mice display androgen-dependent muscle weakness and early death, show changes in muscle morphology and gene expression consistent with neurogenic atrophy, and exhibit a loss of motor axons. These features reproduce those(More)
The fifth and sixth lumbar segments of the rat spinal cord were found to contain a sexually dimorphic nucleus, the spinal nucleus of the bulbocavernosus (SNB). The SNB, which contains motoneurons innervating perineal striated muscles in normal male rats, is adiminished or absent in normal females and in males with a genetic mutation rendering them(More)