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This Letter reports results from the MINOS experiment based on its initial exposure to neutrinos from the Fermilab NuMI beam. The rates and energy spectra of charged current nu(mu) interactions are compared in two detectors located along the beam axis at distances of 1 and 735 km. With 1.27 x 10(20) 120 GeV protons incident on the NuMI target, 215 events(More)
Pharmaceutical industry investigators routinely evaluate the potential for a new drug to modify cytochrome p450 (p450) activities by determining the effect of the drug on in vitro probe reactions that represent activity of specific p450 enzymes. The in vitro findings obtained with one probe substrate are usually extrapolated to the compound's potential to(More)
The complete 5.4 kton MINOS far detector has been taking data since the beginning of August 2003 at a depth of 2070 meters water-equivalent in the Soudan mine, Minnesota. This paper presents the first MINOS observations of and charged-current atmospheric neutrino interactions based on an exposure of 418 days. The ratio of upward-to downward-going events in(More)
BACKGROUND To date, no treatment for neuromyelitis optica (NMO) has been granted regulatory approval, and no controlled clinical studies have been reported. OBJECTIVE To design a placebo-controlled study in NMO that appropriately balances patient safety and clinical-scientific integrity. METHODS We assessed the "standard of care" for NMO to establish(More)
Large scale precipitation of calcium carbonate in the oceans by coccolithophorids is a phenomenon that plays an important role in atmospheric CO 2 trapping. However, recent experiments revealed that the associated fluxes may be slow down by an increase in atmospheric CO 2 concentration. In this paper we design models to account for the decrease in(More)
In this study, calli were obtained from in vitro grown potato stem or leaf segments cv. Cosima on MS medium containing 2,4-D, NAA, kinetin and yeast extract. After three subcultures, well grown calli were exposed to UV-C radiation with approximately 6.24 µmol photon/m 2 /s for 30 min three times at an interval of 2 weeks. Somaclonal variation induced by(More)
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