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Ion channelopathies are inherited diseases in which alterations in control of ion conductance through the central pore of ion channels impair cell function, leading to periodic paralysis, cardiac arrhythmia, renal failure, epilepsy, migraine and ataxia. Here we show that, in contrast with this well-established paradigm, three mutations in(More)
Some inherited periodic paralyses are caused by mutations in skeletal muscle Na(V)1.4 sodium channels that alter channel gating and impair action potential generation. In the case of hypokalemic periodic paralysis, mutations of one of the outermost two gating charges in the S4 voltage sensor in domain II of the Na(V)1.4 alpha subunit induce gating pore(More)
Voltage-gated sodium channels activate in response to depolarization, but it is unknown whether the voltage-sensing arginines in their S4 segments pivot across the lipid bilayer as voltage sensor paddles or move through the protein in a gating pore. Here we report that mutation of pairs of arginine gating charges to glutamine induces cation permeation(More)
Hypokalemic periodic paralysis and normokalemic periodic paralysis are caused by mutations of the gating charge-carrying arginine residues in skeletal muscle Na(V)1.4 channels, which induce gating pore current through the mutant voltage sensor domains. Inward sodium currents through the gating pore of mutant R666G are only approximately 1% of central pore(More)
ProTx-II, an inhibitory cysteine knot toxin from the tarantula Thrixopelma pruriens, inhibits voltage-gated sodium channels. Using the cut-open oocyte preparation for electrophysiological recording, we show here that ProTx-II impedes movement of the gating charges of the sodium channel voltage sensors and reduces maximum activation of sodium conductance. At(More)
Ranolazine is clinically approved for treatment of angina pectoris and is a potential candidate for antiarrhythmic, antiepileptic, and analgesic applications. These therapeutic effects of ranolazine hinge on its ability to inhibit persistent or late Na(+) currents in a variety of voltage-gated sodium channels. Extracellular acidosis, typical of ischemic(More)
The scorpion alpha-toxin Lqh2 (from Leiurus quinquestriatus hebraeus) is active at various mammalian voltage-gated sodium channels (Na(v)s) and is inactive at insect Na(v)s. To resolve the molecular basis of this preference we used the following strategy: 1) Lqh2 was expressed in recombinant form and key residues important for activity at the rat brain(More)
Epilepsy is a brain disorder characterized by seizures and convulsions. The basis of epilepsy is an increase in neuronal excitability that, in some cases, may be caused by functional defects in neuronal voltage gated sodium channels, Nav1.1 and Nav1.2. The effects of antiepileptic drugs (AEDs) as effective therapies for epilepsy have been characterized by(More)
Epilepsy is a disorder characterized by seizures and convulsions. The basis of epilepsy is an increase in neuronal excitability that, in some cases, may be caused by functional defects in neuronal voltage gated sodium channels (NaVs). The C121W mutation of the β1 subunit, in particular, gives rise to the thermosensitive generalized epilepsy with febrile(More)