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It is well known that herbivores have numerous and diverse impacts on plant and algal fitness, community structure and ecosystem function. The importance of corallivory as a selective force, however, has been underestimated. Corallivores, or consumers of live coral tissue, employ a wide variety of feeding strategies and can be obligate or facultative coral(More)
Sexual selection is a major force driving the evolution of diverse reproductive traits. This evolutionary process is based on individual reproductive advantages that arise either through intrasexual competition or through intersexual choice and conflict. While classical studies of sexual selection focused mainly on differences in male mating success, more(More)
A comprehensive understanding of sexual selection requires knowledge of the traits and mechanisms responsible for increasing a male’s paternity share (proportion of progeny sired) relative to that of other males mating with the same female. In this study we manipulated by starvation the expression of traits that might influence male paternity share in(More)
In several insect species, seminal fluid proteins (SFPs) have been demonstrated to be key regulators of male and female fitness through their ability to alter female physiology and behaviour. Tribolium castaneum is an economically important pest species and a model system for sexual selection research, but little is known about SFPs in this insect. To(More)
While there have been many anecdotal reports of sounds produced by Hippocampus seahorses, little is known about the mechanisms of sound production. We investigated clicking sounds produced during feeding strikes in H. zosterae and H. erectus. Descriptions of head morphology support the idea that feeding clicks may represent stridulatory sounds produced by a(More)
Coral bleaching, in which corals become visibly pale and typically lose their endosymbiotic zooxanthellae (Symbiodinium spp.), increasingly threatens coral reefs worldwide. While the proximal environmental triggers of bleaching are reasonably well understood, considerably less is known concerning physiological and ecological factors that might exacerbate(More)
Tropical seaweeds in the genus Halimeda reduce losses to grazing by capitalizing on diel patterns of herbivore activity. These seaweeds produce new, more herbivoresusceptible growth at night when herbivorous reef fishes are inactive. Plant portions more than 48 h old are low in food value, well defended morphologically (calcified and high in ash content),(More)
In insects, the last male to mate with a female often gains access to a disproportionate number of subsequent fertilizations. This study examined last-male sperm precedence patterns in doubly and triply mated Tribolium castaneum females. Sperm storage processes were investigated by measuring the quantity of sperm stored within the female spermatheca(More)
Many key advances in our understanding of firefly biology and signaling have been made over the past two decades. Here we review this recent research, which includes new phylogenetic results that shed light on the evolution of courtship signal diversity within the family Lampyridae, new insights into firefly flash control, and the discovery of firefly(More)