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Contrary to the recently reemphasized notion that the primary neuron involved in amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) is the cortical (upper) motor neuron (UMN), we believe that the lower motor neuron (LMN) is primarily involved by the retrograde transport of pathogens from neuromuscular junctions, and the disease process spreads monosynaptically to the UMN.(More)
Peroxynitrite, formed from nitric oxide and superoxide, may affect neurofilament assembly and cause neurofilament accumulation in motoneurons. This hypothesis may reconcile the mutations of two genes: superoxide dismutase-1 in some patients with familial amyotrophic lateral sclerosis, and the gene for the heavy neurofilament in some patients with sporadic(More)
A number of free radicals such as superoxide and nitric oxide may cause damage to motor neurons but the exact mechanism remains to be elucidated. A potent free radical, peroxynitrite, is readily formed from superoxide and nitric oxide, which captures superoxide three times faster than SOD-1. Peroxynitrite may nitrate tyrosine residues of light(More)
Chromatolytic motor neurons (cMN) in Werdnig-Hoffmann disease (WHD) were investigated in both spinal anterior horns and hypoglossal nuclei with both immuno- and lectin-histochemistry in six cases (3-9 months; two female and four male) of clinically typical WHD. Most characteristic findings from lectin-histochemistry were central accumulation of N-linked(More)
Neurofilamentous conglomerates (NfCg), as axonal spheroids or conglomerates in motoneurons, are the histopathologic hallmarks for early stages of amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS). We hypothesize that NfCg may be formed by post-translational modifications of altered Nf proteins that include: (1) hyperphosphorylation, (2) glycosylation (or glycoxidation),(More)
Light and electron microscopic study and morphometric analysis were performed on the spinal cords and roots from six cases of acute Werdnig-Hoffmann disease and four control cases, in search of the pathogenesis of the selective motor neuron changes considered primarily responsible for Werdnig-Hoffman disease. This investigation posits a centrifugal traction(More)
N-Butyl benzenesulfonamide (NBBS), a plasticizer used commercially in the polymerization of polyamide compounds, is neurotoxic. Young adult New Zealand white rabbits, inoculated repeatedly with NBBS by the intracisternal or intraperitoneal routes, developed a dose-dependent motor dysfunction characterized by limb splaying, hyperreflexia, hypertonia, gait(More)
To examine the neural influence upon fiber type differentiation in developing muscles, newborn rats were subjected to sciatic nerve dissection, and the denervated extensor digitorum longus (EDL) (white) and soleus (red) muscles were examined in chronologic sequence by means of histochemistry and electron microscopy. The skeletal muscles in the newborn rats(More)
Fast transport of intra-axonal organelles was studied in motor nerve from amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) patients. Organelle traffic in ALS nerves demonstrated a significant increase in anterograde mean speed, while retrograde mean speed was decreased compared with that of controls. Retrograde traffic density (organelles per unit time) was also(More)