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Animal models of stress have the potential to provide information about the course and etiology of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD). To date, however, there have been no systematic approaches for evaluating the relevance of animal models of stress to PTSD. It has been established in the animal literature that different types of stress paradigms lead to(More)
1. A number of animal studies have shown that the actions of numerous drugs can grow or sensitize with the passage of time following even a single treatment, to achieve results equal to or greater than those seen after chronic administration. 2. Our laboratory earlier proposed that this principle might be applied to the treatment of human disorders. It was(More)
Sniffing and licking components of amphetamine-induced stereotypy were studied separately during chronic drug treatment. Sniffing showed a gradual increase, or sensitization, in intensity and duration. By contrast, licking developed tolerance for approximately the first 21 days, followed by a progressive increase. Stereotypy is therefore not a homogeneous(More)
This review provides both a biological and clinical perspective on Time-Dependent Sensitization (TDS), an ancient amplified memory response to threat manifest in the ability of both drugs and nondrug stressors to induce neuronal and behavioral effects which strengthen entirely as a function of the passage of time following even a single or acute exposure.(More)
In view of similarities between the behavioral, biochemical, and electrophysiological effects of amphetamine and stress, we tested the hypothesis that presentation of a stressor, mild tail pressure, can sensitize an animal to the later effects of amphetamine, and vice versa. Our findings supported this hypothesis and suggest that amphetamine and at least(More)
Mild-tail-pinch induces a syndrome of eating, gnawing and licking behavior in rats in the presence of food. Detailed behavioral, pharmacological and biochemical analyses of this phenomenon resulted in the following conclusions. (1) This is an unusually reliable phenomenon, demonstrable in each of more than 200 animals tested. (2) Eating is by far the(More)