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The extraordinary strength of the Escherichia coli rRNA promoter rrnB P1 derives primarily from sequences upstream of the core (-10, -35) region. We find that sequences between -40 and -60 increase the activity of this promoter at least 30-fold in vitro and in vivo. This region, which we refer to as the upstream (UP) element, is located between the -35(More)
Comparative studies of the effects of Mg2+ vs Na+ and of acetate (OAc-) vs Cl- on the kinetics of formation and dissociation of E. coli RNA polymerase (E sigma 70)-lambda PR promoter open complexes have been used to probe the mechanism of this interaction. Composite second-order association rate constants ka and first-order dissociation rate constants kd,(More)
The Escherichia coli Fis protein binds to three sites in the upstream activation region of the rrnB P1 promoter and enhances transcription 5- to 10-fold in vivo. In this report, we investigate the mechanism of Fis-dependent activation of transcription. We show that stimulation of rrnB P1 transcription by Fis can occur on linear DNA templates and does not(More)
Although protein-nucleic acid interactions exhibit dramatic dependences on both ion concentration and type in vitro, large variations in intracellular ion concentrations can occur in Escherichia coli and other organisms without apparent effects on gene expression in vivo. E. coli accumulates K+ and glutamate as cytoplasmic osmolytes. The cytoplasmic K+(More)
The region from position -154 to position -50 upstream from the start site of transcription of the Escherichia coli rrnB P1 promoter, the upstream activator region (UAR), is required for maximal promoter activity in vivo. Maximal activation (20 to 30-fold) requires the binding of Fis protein in vitro and in vivo. However, two- to fourfold activation remains(More)
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