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Adenosine triphosphate (ATP)-sensitive potassium (KATP) channels couple cell metabolism to electrical activity. Phosphatidylinositol phosphates (PIPs) profoundly antagonized ATP inhibition of KATP channels when applied to inside-out membrane patches. It is proposed that membrane-incorporated PIPs can bind to positive charges in the cytoplasmic region of the(More)
K(ATP) channels can be formed from Kir6.2 subunits with or without SUR1. The open-state stability of K(ATP) channels can be increased or reduced by mutations throughout the Kir6.2 subunit, and is increased by application of PIP(2) to the cytoplasmic membrane. Increase of open-state stability is manifested as an increase in the channel open probability in(More)
Adenosine triphosphate (ATP)-sensitive potassium (KATP) channels couple the cellular metabolic state to electrical activity and are a critical link between blood glucose concentration and pancreatic insulin secretion. A mutation in the second nucleotide-binding fold (NBF2) of the sulfonylurea receptor (SUR) of an individual diagnosed with persistent(More)
CONTEXT Hypoglycemia due to congenital hyperinsulinism (HI) is caused by mutations in 9 genes. OBJECTIVE Our objective was to correlate genotype with phenotype in 417 children with HI. METHODS Mutation analysis was carried out for the ATP-sensitive potassium (KATP) channel genes (ABCC8 and KCNJ11), GLUD1, and GCK with supplemental screening of rarer(More)
1. To gain insight into the role of the cytoplasmic regions of the Kir6.2 subunit in regulating channel activity, we have expressed the sulphonylurea receptor SUR1 with Kir6.2 subunits containing systematic truncations of the N- and C-termini. Up to 30 amino acids could be truncated from the N-terminus, and up to 36 amino acids from the C-terminus without(More)
KATP channels were reconstituted in COSm6 cells by coexpression of the sulfonylurea receptor SUR1 and the inward rectifier potassium channel Kir6.2. The role of the two nucleotide binding folds of SUR1 in regulation of KATP channel activity by nucleotides and diazoxide was investigated. Mutations in the linker region and the Walker B motif (Walker, J.E.,(More)
The cellular prion protein (PrPC) is a glycolipid-anchored protein that is involved in the pathogenesis of fatal spongiform encephalopathies. We have shown previously that, in contrast to several other glycolipid-anchored proteins, chPrP, the chicken homologue of mammalian PrPC, is endocytosed via clathrin-coated pits in cultured neuroblastoma cells, as(More)
There is currently no effective therapy for human prion diseases. However, several polyanionic glycans, including pentosan sulfate and dextran sulfate, prolong the incubation time of scrapie in rodents, and inhibit the production of the scrapie isoform of the prion protein (PrPSc), the major component of infectious prions, in cultured neuroblastoma cells.(More)
The ATP-sensitive potassium channel (K(ATP)) regulates insulin secretion in pancreatic beta cells. Loss of functional K(ATP) channels because of mutations in either the SUR1 or Kir6.2 channel subunit causes persistent hyperinsulinemic hypoglycemia of infancy (PHHI). We investigated the molecular mechanism by which a single phenylalanine deletion in SUR1(More)
The prion protein (PrPC) is a glycolipid-anchored, cell surface protein of unknown function, a posttranslationally modified isoform of which has been implicated in the pathogenesis of spongiform encephalopathies in man and animals. We report here the novel observation that chPrP, the chicken homologue of mammalian PrPC, constitutively cycles between the(More)