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The 'acuity card' procedure described here is a simplified method of testing visual acuity of infants and young children, and has been developed to allow preferential looking to be assessed in a laboratory or clinic. A higher proportion of children can be tested successfully than has been reported for more traditional procedures. Initial studies indicate(More)
Forced-choice preferential looking (FPL) and operant preferential looking (OPL) procedures for testing infant acuity typically require 15-45 min to derive an acuity estimate. This article presents a new acuity assessment technique ("acuity cards") that combines FPL/OPL stimuli with an observer's subjective assessment of an infant's looking behavior. The(More)
Review of the cycloplegic refractions of all children who were first examined at Children's Hospital Medical Center in Boston between 1968 and 1978 revealed that 281 children between the ages of 0 and 9.5 years had astigmatism of 1 diopter (D) or greater but no other ophthalmological or neurological problems. In the 85 children under 3.5 years of age,(More)
The acuity card procedure has been shown to be a rapid method for the assessment of monocular and binocular grating acuity in normal infants from birth through 36 months of age. The current study seeks to validate the procedure further by using the acuity cards to assess 20 2- to 8-month-old infant patients with ocular disorders, including aphakia,(More)
An "acuity card" technique has been developed for rapid assessment of visual acuity in infants. In this procedure an adult observer shows the infant a series of cards that contain gratings of various spatial frequencies and estimates acuity as the highest spatial frequency that the infant is judged to see. The present paper shows that the acuity card(More)
The acuity card procedure is a useful method for measuring visual acuity in infants 1 to 12 months of age. The results of the present study indicate that the procedure is also a viable method for estimating acuity in children 18 to 36 months of age. Monocular and binocular estimates of acuity were obtained with the acuity card procedure on 36 normal(More)
Previous studies of school-age children born prior to term indicate that they often have visual acuity that is slightly poorer than normal. However, visual acuity results for preschool-age preterm children have not been reported. In this study, we used the operant preferential looking procedure to measure the visual acuities of 23 3- to 4-year-old preterm(More)
Relationships between abnormalities on neonatal serial cranial ultrasound and cognitive development at age one year were examined in 153 low birth weight (LBW) infants. Infants with complex injury (persistent parenchymal echogenicity, lucency, or persistent ventricular enlargement) scored significantly lower on the Bayley Mental Development Index than(More)
Grating acuity and stereopsis were measured longitudinally in five groups of infants: infantile esotropes, moderate hyperopes, high hyperopes, infants with a family history of strabismus or amblyopia and controls. Grating acuity was measured with a forced-choice preferential looking procedure. Stereopsis was assessed with a random-element stereogram.(More)
The operant preferential looking (OPL) procedure allows a behavioral estimate of visual acuity to be obtained from children 6 mo to 3 yr of age. In clinical settings, there is often too little time available to obtain an acuity estimate with the standard OPL procedure. The goal of this study was to identify specific spatial frequencies, termed diagnostic(More)
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