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Theory predicts that traits under positive selection can rapidly cross a hybrid zone in spite of a substantial barrier to neutral gene flow between hybridizing taxa. An avian hybrid zone between Manacus candei (white-collared manakin) and M. vitellinus (golden-collared manakin) is reported here that displays an unusual pattern of noncoincident clines. Male(More)
The extinct moa-nalos were very large, flightless waterfowl from the Hawaiian islands. We extracted, amplified and sequenced mitochondrial DNA from fossil moa-nalo bones to determine their systematic relationships and lend insight into their biogeographical history. The closest living relatives of these massive, goose-like birds are the familiar dabbling(More)
Thousands of fossil bird bones from the Hawaiian Islands collected since 1971 include remains of at least 39 species of land birds that are not known to have survived into the historic period; this more than doubles the number of endemic species of land birds previously known from the main islands. Bones were found in deposits of late Quaternary age; most(More)
Long thought never to have been inhabited and to be in a pristine ecological state, Henderson Island (southeast Pacific) is now known to have been colonized and then abandoned by Polynesians. Bones from an archaeological site on the island associated with (14)C dates of approximately 800 and approximately 500 years B.P. include specimens of 12 species of(More)
The emergence and expansion of complex eukaryotic life on Earth is linked at a basic level to the secular evolution of surface oxygen levels. However, the role that planetary redox evolution has played in controlling the timing of metazoan (animal) emergence and diversification, if any, has been intensely debated. Discussion has gravitated toward threshold(More)
Vertebrate remains recovered from a limestone fissure filling on Antigua, Lesser Antilles, are associated with radiocarbon dates ranging from 4300 to 2500 yr B.P., contemporaneous with the earliest aboriginal human occupation of the island. Nine taxa of lizards, snakes, birds, bats, and rodents (one-third of the total number of species represented as(More)
Fossils newly discovered in the Paleocene and early Eocene of western North America document some of the oldest birds known from nearly complete skeletons. These were medium-sized carinates with powers of sustained flight but which had a paleognathous palate like that of the flightless ostrich-like birds and the tinamous. The fossils provide additional(More)
In practical application, analysis of remote sensing data requires a mix of technical analysis and best expert judgment. Unfortunately, a substantial experimental literature on judgment indicates that expert judgment is systematically flawed. In particular, experts are prone to a confirmation bias – where focus on a proposed hypothesis leads the expert to(More)