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A potent neurotrophic factor that enhances survival of midbrain dopaminergic neurons was purified and cloned. Glial cell line-derived neurotrophic factor (GDNF) is a glycosylated, disulfide-bonded homodimer that is a distantly related member of the transforming growth factor-beta superfamily. In embryonic midbrain cultures, recombinant human GDNF promoted(More)
Glial cell line-derived neurotrophic factor (GDNF) is a novel member of the transforming growth factor-beta superfamily with potent trophic effects on dopamine neurons. Kainate-induced epileptic seizures have been shown to induce gene expression of trophic factors, particularly members of neurotrophin or fibroblast growth factor families, in the(More)
Glial cell-line derived neurotrophic factor (GDNF) has recently been cloned and shown to have trophic effects on dopaminergic nigral neurons. However, GDNF mRNA has not been detected in striatum or other forebrain areas of adult rat. Using limbic motor status epilepticus induced by pilocarpine to activate neurons in motor and limbic areas, we now(More)
We have analyzed the fate of circular and linear DNA molecules following microinjection into the cytoplasm of fertilized eggs of Xenopus laevis. Recombinant plasmids containing sea urchin histone genes (pSp 102), Drosophila ADH genes (sAC-1), and SV40 (SV2 CAT) replicate during the development of the injected frog embryo. In contrast, pBR322 either as(More)
Recently, studies on the 5'-ends of actin mRNAs in the nematode, Caenorhabditis elegans, have demonstrated that three of the four mature actin transcripts contain a 22-nucleotide leader sequence which is acquired by trans-splicing from a novel 100-nucleotide RNA. In the course of our studies of the ubiquitin genes in C. elegans (R. W. Graham and E. P. M.(More)
Previous studies have demonstrated antigenic differences among the pili expressed by various strains of Haemophilus influenzae type b (Hib). In order to understand the molecular basis for these differences, the structural gene for pilin was cloned from Hib strain Eagan (p+) and the nucleotide sequence was compared to those of strains M43 (p+) and 770235(More)
Rho protein is responsible for termination of transcription of the cro gene of bacteriophage lambda. Since rho is known to interact with the RNA whose synthesis is being terminated, we measured the specificity and strength of binding of rho to isolated cro transcripts, using a nitrocellulose filter retention assay. The association constant (K alpha) for the(More)
Several different mRNAs from Caenorhabditis elegans contain the same 22-nucleotide leader sequence at their 5' ends that is acquired in a trans-splicing reaction. About 10 to 15% of the major proteins are translated from mRNAs that contain the spliced leader, among them two ribosomal proteins, ubiquitin, GAPDH, a heat shock protein (hsp70a), and three(More)