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Positive Darwinian selection at the molecular level is often studied by comparing the number of synonymous nucleotide substitutions per synonymous site (d,) and the number of nonsynonymous substitutions per nonsynonymous site (dN) between homologous gene sequences , and a t-test with an infinite number of degrees of freedom is usually used for determining(More)
Adaptive evolution at the molecular level can be studied by detecting convergent and parallel evolution at the amino acid sequence level. For a set of homologous protein sequences, the ancestral amino acids at all interior nodes of the phylogenetic tree of the proteins can be statistically inferred. The amino acid sites that have experienced convergent or(More)
Production of interleukin-1 and tumour necrosis factor from stimulated human monocytes is inhibited by a new series of pyridinyl-imidazole compounds. Using radiolabelled and radio-photoaffinity-labelled chemical probes, the target of these compounds was identified as a pair of closely related mitogen-activated protein kinase homologues, termed CSBPs.(More)
The tongue papillae of 6-9-month-old Jamunapari goats were studied by scanning electron-microscopy. The conical-shaped filiform papillae had 3-6 pointed projections and 6-8 secondary papillae at the free tip and the base of the dorsal surfaced of the tongue, respectively. The convex surfaced fungiform papillae were raised above the lingual mucosa. The(More)
Partial degradation products of sodium hyaluronate produced by the action of testicular hyaluronidase induced an angiogenic response (formation of new blood vessels) on the chick chorioallantoic membrane. Neither macromolecular hyaluronate nor exhaustively digested material had any angiogenic potential. Fractionation of the digestion products established(More)
Human mesenchymal stem/progenitor cells (MSCs) have been identified in adult bone marrow, but little is known about their presence during fetal life. MSCs were isolated and characterized in first-trimester fetal blood, liver, and bone marrow. When 10(6) fetal blood nucleated cells (median gestational age, 10(+2) weeks [10 weeks, 2 days]) were cultured in(More)
BACKGROUND Central obesity results in a cluster of metabolic abnormalities contributing to premature death. Glucocorticoids regulate adipose-tissue differentiation, function, and distribution, and in excess, cause central obesity. Glucocorticoid hormone action is, in part, controlled by two isoforms of the enzyme 11 beta-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase (11(More)
In the maximum parsimony (MP) and minimum evolution (ME) methods of phylogenetic inference, evolutionary trees are constructed by searching for the topology that shows the minimum number of mutational changes required (M) and the smallest sum of branch lengths (S), respectively, whereas in the maximum likelihood (ML) method the topology showing the highest(More)
The subplate is a transient structure essential for normal development of the cortex. We used magnetic resonance imaging of the fetal brain to assess cortical subplate evolution between 20 and 35 weeks gestation. Two-dimensional measures of diameter were obtained for the cortex, subplate and fetal white matter. The subplate was originally seen as a(More)
For a given body mass index (BMI), mortality is higher in patients with central compared to generalized obesity. Glucocorticoids play an important role in determining body fat distribution, but circulating cortisol concentrations are reported to be normal in obese patients. Our recent studies show enhanced conversion of inactive cortisone (E) to active(More)