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A timescale is necessary for estimating rates of molecular and morphological change in organisms and for interpreting patterns of macroevolution and biogeography. Traditionally, these times have been obtained from the fossil record, where the earliest representatives of two lineages establish a minimum time of divergence of these lineages. The clock-like(More)
Production of interleukin-1 and tumour necrosis factor from stimulated human monocytes is inhibited by a new series of pyridinyl-imidazole compounds. Using radiolabelled and radio-photoaffinity-labelled chemical probes, the target of these compounds was identified as a pair of closely related mitogen-activated protein kinase homologues, termed CSBPs.(More)
In 2009, the Nomenclature Committee on Cell Death (NCCD) proposed a set of recommendations for the definition of distinct cell death morphologies and for the appropriate use of cell death-related terminology, including 'apoptosis', 'necrosis' and 'mitotic catastrophe'. In view of the substantial progress in the biochemical and genetic exploration of cell(More)
In the past, molecular clocks have been used to estimate divergence times among animal phyla, but those time estimates have varied widely (1200-670 million years ago, Ma). In order to obtain time estimates that are more robust, we have analysed a larger number of genes for divergences among three well-represented animal phyla, and among plants, animals and(More)
The classical hypothesis for the diversification of birds and mammals proposes that most of the orders diverged rapidly in adaptive radiations after the Cretaceous/Tertiary (K/T) extinction event 65 million years ago. Evidence is provided by the near-absence of fossils representing modern orders before the K/T boundary. However, fossil-based estimates of(More)
Severely elevated levels of total homocysteine (approximately millimolar) in the blood typify the childhood disease homocystinuria, whereas modest levels (tens of micromolar) are commonly found in adults who are at increased risk for vascular disease and stroke. Activation of the coagulation system and adverse effects of homocysteine on the endothelium and(More)
Several sequence and structural factors have been proposed to contribute toward greater stability of thermophilic proteins. Here we present a statistical examination of structural and sequence parameters in representatives of 18 non-redundant families of thermophilic and mesophilic proteins. Our aim was to look for systematic differences among thermophilic(More)
By subtraction cloning we previously identified a set of mouse genes (named Nedd1 through Nedd10) with developmentally down-regulated expression in brain. We now show that one such gene, Nedd2, encodes a protein similar to the mammalian interleukin-1 beta-converting enzyme (ICE) and the product of the Caenorhabditis elegans cell death gene ced-3 (CED-3).(More)
The mouse Nedd5 gene encodes a 41.5-kD GTPase similar to the Saccharomyces and Drosophila septins essential for cytokinesis. Nedd5 accumulates near the contractile ring from anaphase through telophase, and finally condenses into the midbody. Microinjection of anti-Nedd5 antibody interferes with cytokinesis, giving rise to binucleated cells. In interphase(More)
Vertebrate retinal photoreceptors recover from photoexcitation-induced hydrolysis of guanosine 3', 5'-monophosphate (cyclic GMP) by resynthesizing cyclic GMP, which reopens cation channels that have been closed by light. Activation of guanylate cyclase by light-induced depletion of cytosolic calcium is a key event in this recovery process. This cyclase has(More)