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To review the complications associated with laparoscopic surgery and provide clinical direction regarding the best practice based on the best available evidence. The laparoscopic entry techniques and technologies reviewed include the classic pneumoperitoneum (Veress/trocar), the open (Hasson), the direct trocar insertion, the use of disposable shielded(More)
Tyrosine hydroxylase requires the regulatory cofactor, tetrahydrobiopterin, for catecholamine biosynthesis. Because guanosine triphosphate cyclohydrolase I is the rate limiting enzyme for the synthesis of this cofactor, it has a key role in catecholamine production. We show that GTP cyclohydrolase and tyrosine hydroxylase (TH) are co-localized in the(More)
PURPOSE To study target-specific delivery of doxorubicin (Dox) using an RNA aptamer against epithelial cell adhesion molecule (EpCAM) in retinoblastoma (RB) cells. METHODS The binding affinity of the EpCAM aptamer to RB primary tumor cells, Y79 and WERI-Rb1 cells, and Müller glial cell lines were evaluated with flow cytometry. Formation of physical(More)
PURPOSE Several miRNAs have been reported as candidate oncogenes and tumor suppressors, which are involved in the pathways specifically altered during tumorigenesis or metastasis. The miR 17-92 cluster located in 13q31 locus might contribute to retinoblastoma (RB) oncogenesis as 13q31 is amplified often in RB. We attempted to identify the factors involved(More)
PURPOSE This study was conducted to investigate the potential of targeting epithelial cell adhesion molecules (EpCAMs) in the treatment of retinoblastoma. It was first determined whether EpCAM is expressed in retinoblastoma and then whether EpCAM reactivity correlates with tumor aggressiveness. METHODS EpCAM reactivity was evaluated by(More)
PURPOSE Previously we showed that epithelial cell adhesion molecule (Ep-CAM), a cell surface molecule, was highly expressed in primary retinoblastoma tumors. In the present study, we studied the genes regulated by Ep-CAM in a retinoblastoma Y79 cell line in vitro using a combination of short interference RNA and microarray technology. METHODS Flow(More)
PURPOSE To explore the possibility of stathmin as an effective therapeutic target and to evaluate the synergistic combination of stathmin RNAi and the antimicrotubule agents paclitaxel and vincristine to retinoblastoma Y79 cells. METHODS RNAi-mediated specific inhibition of stathmin expression in Y79 cells was shown by real-time quantitative RT-PCR(More)
PURPOSE Novel strategies are being applied for creating better in vitro models that simulate in vivo conditions for testing the efficacy of anticancer drugs. In the present study we developed surface-engineered, large and porous, biodegradable, polymeric microparticles as a scaffold for three dimensional (3-D) growth of a Y79 retinoblastoma (RB) cell line.(More)
PURPOSE Lysyl oxidase (LOX) cross-links the side chain of collagen and elastin and thereby contributes to extracellular matrix (ECM) integrity. ECM remodeling is seen in various ocular diseases. Until now, there have been no reports on the LOX enzyme's activity in ocular tissues. The purpose of this study was to estimate LOX activity and expression in human(More)
Retinoblastoma (RB) is a malignant tumor of the retina seen in children, and potential non invasive biomarkers are in need for rapid diagnosis and for prognosticating the therapy. This study was undertaken to identify the differentially expressed miRNAs in the serum of children with RB in comparison with the normal age matched serum, to analyze its(More)