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BACKGROUND We tested the hypothesis that prophylactic cardiac-resynchronization therapy in the form of biventricular stimulation with a pacemaker with or without a defibrillator would reduce the risk of death and hospitalization among patients with advanced chronic heart failure and intraventricular conduction delays. METHODS A total of 1520 patients who(More)
BACKGROUND Results of previous studies support the hypothesis that implantable haemodynamic monitoring systems might reduce rates of hospitalisation in patients with heart failure. We undertook a single-blind trial to assess this approach. METHODS Patients with New York Heart Association (NYHA) class III heart failure, irrespective of the left ventricular(More)
BACKGROUND The factors that determine the risk for sudden death or implantable cardioverter defibrillator therapy in patients receiving cardiac resynchronization therapy (CRT) therapies are largely unknown. METHODS AND RESULTS We hypothesized that clinical measures of heart failure severity and the presence of comorbid conditions would predict the risk of(More)
BACKGROUND We conducted a multicenter, placebo-controlled trial designed to establish the efficacy and safety of carvedilol, a "third-generation" beta -blocking agent with vasodilator properties, in chronic heart failure. METHODS AND RESULTS Three hundred forty-five subjects with mild to moderate, stable chronic heart failure were randomized to receive(More)
BACKGROUND We tested the hypothesis that carvedilol inhibits clinical progression in patients with mildly symptomatic heart failure due to left ventricular (LV) systolic dysfunction. METHODS AND RESULTS Patients (n = 366) who had mildly symptomatic heart failure with an LV ejection fraction (LVEF) < or = 0.35, had minimal functional impairment (defined as(More)
BACKGROUND Cardiac contractility modulation (CCM) delivers nonexcitatory electrical signals to the heart during the absolute refractory period intended to improve contraction. METHODS We tested CCM in 428 New York Heart Association class III or IV, narrow QRS heart failure patients with ejection fraction (EF) ≤ 35% randomized to optimal medical therapy(More)
BACKGROUND Cardiac contractility modulation signals are associated with acutely improved hemodynamics, but chronic clinical impact is not defined. OBJECTIVES The purpose of this randomized, double-blind, pilot study was to determine the feasibility of safely and effectively delivering cardiac contractility modulation signals in patients with heart(More)
BACKGROUND Left ventricular assist devices (LVADs) have improved survival in patients with end-stage heart failure. Compared with previous trials, the Randomized Evaluation of Mechanical Assistance in Treatment of Chronic Heart Failure (REMATCH) trial enrolled patients with more advanced heart failure and high prevalence of intravenous inotropic therapy.(More)
SUMMARY This paper reports an intercomparison study of midlatitude continental cumulus convection simulated by eight two-dimensional and two three-dimensional cloud-resolving models (CRMs), driven by observed large-scale advective temperature and moisture tendencies, surface turbulent fluxes, and radiativl~-heating profiles during three sub-periods of the(More)
SUMMARY This study reports the Single-Column Model (SCM) part of the Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM)/the Global Energy and Water Cycle Experiment (GEWEX) Cloud System Study (GCSS) joint SCM and Cloud-Resolving Model (CRM) Case 3 intercomparison study, with a focus on evaluation of cumulus parametrizations used in SCMs. Fifteen SCMs are evaluated(More)