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The objective of this study was to evaluate the utility of measuring microvessel fractal dimension (MFD) as a parameter of architectural microvascular complexity in localized renal cell carcinoma (RCC). Forty-nine patients with low-stage clear cell RCC were assessed in a 9-year follow-up retrospective study. Tumor vessels were visualized with the(More)
Compartmentalization of the lateral ventricle may prevent adequate functioning of ventriculoperitoneal shunts. We recently treated a patient with postinfectious hydrocephalus who required bilateral shunts. In addition, the left ventricle was shown to contain a large noncommunicating cyst. Prior to placement of the shunt, ventriculoscopy was performed and a(More)
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