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Nitric oxide is a gaseous, free radical which plays a role as an intracellular second messenger and a diffusable intercellular messenger. To obtain direct evidence for NO functions in vivo, we have designed and synthesized diaminofluoresceins (DAFs) as novel fluorescent indicators for NO. The fluorescent chemical transformation of DAFs is based on the(More)
In mice lacking glutamate receptor subunit delta 2 (GluR delta 2(-/-_ mice), cerebellar long-term depression (LTD) at the parallel fibre-Purkinje cell synapses is disrupted. Unlike the cerebellar LTD-deficient mice previously used for eyeblink conditioning, however, the abnormalities of the GluR delta 2(-/-) mice are restricted to the cerebellar cortex. In(More)
Endogenous nitric oxide (NO) appears to modulate many physiological and pathophysiological processes. In order to obtain direct evidence for NO functions in vivo, we have developed 4,5-diaminofluorescein (DAF-2) as a novel fluorescent indicator for NO. Green-fluorescent triazolofluorescein formed by the reaction of NO and DAF-2 affords high sensitivity for(More)
Mice lacking the glutamate receptor subunit delta2 (GluRdelta2) are deficient in cerebellar long-term depression (LTD) at the parallel fibre-Purkinje cell synapses. We conducted delay and trace eyeblink conditioning with these mice, using various temporal intervals between the conditioned stimulus (CS) and unconditioned stimulus (US). During trace(More)
Cicatricial contraction of preretinal fibrous membrane is a cause of severe vision loss in proliferative vitreoretinal diseases such as proliferative diabetic retinopathy (PDR) and proliferative vitreoretinopathy (PVR). TGF-beta is overexpressed in the vitreous of patients with proliferative vitreoretinal diseases and is also detectable in the contractile(More)
OBJECTIVE Leukocyte adhesion in retinal microvasuculature substantially contributes to diabetic retinopathy. Involvement of the Rho/Rho kinase (ROCK) pathway in diabetic microvasculopathy and therapeutic potential of fasudil, a selective ROCK inhibitor, are investigated. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS Localization of RhoA/ROCK and Rho activity were examined(More)
To elucidate the functional role of phospholipase Cbeta4 (PLCbeta4), which is highly expressed in the Purkinje cells of the rostral cerebellum, cerebellar long-term depression (LTD) and delay and trace eyeblink conditioning were investigated in PLCbeta4-deficient mice. Rostral cerebellar LTD and delay eyeblink conditioning were severely impaired, whereas(More)
Neural oscillations have been found to occur in the olfactory centers of some vertebrates and invertebrates, including the procerebrum of the terrestrial slug Limax marginatus. Using optical recording with the potential-sensitive dye di-4-ANEPPS, we analyzed the spatiotemporal pattern of procerebral neural activities in response to odorants applied to an in(More)
We studied the oscillatory properties and the olfactory responses of the procerebral (PC) lobe of the cerebral ganglion in the terrestrial mollusc Limax marginatus. The PC lobe, a central olfactory organ in Limax, is a highly interconnected network of local interneurons that receives olfactory inputs from the inferior and superior tentacular noses. We used(More)
The age effect on classical eyeblink conditioning in unrestrained mice (C57BL/6J strain) was evaluated. Mice were trained at one of three age periods (8, 45-50 or 85-90 weeks). In the delay paradigm, significant learning deficits were evident in the 85-90 week-old group, but no deficits were observed in the behavior of the 45-50 week-old group. On the other(More)