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The cellular toxicity of carbon-based nanomaterials was studied as a function of their aspect ratio and surface chemistry. These structures were multiwalled carbon nanotubes, carbon nanofibers, and carbon nanoparticles. Their toxicity was tested in vitro on lung tumor cells. Our work clearly indicated that these materials are toxic while the hazardous(More)
Trafficking of AMPA-type glutamate receptors (AMPAR) between endosomes and the postsynaptic plasma membrane of neurons plays a central role in the control of synaptic strength associated with learning and memory. The molecular mechanisms of its regulation remain poorly understood, however. Here we show by biochemical and atomic force microscopy analyses(More)
The dynamics of nonspecific and specific Escherichia coli RNA polymerase (RNAP)-DNA complexes have been directly observed using scanning force microscopy operating in buffer. To this end, imaging conditions had to be found in which DNA molecules were adsorbed onto mica strongly enough to be imaged, but loosely enough to be able to diffuse on the surface. In(More)
The long latent stage seen in syphilis, followed by chronic central nervous system infection and inflammation, can be explained by the persistence of atypical cystic and granular forms of Treponema pallidum. We investigated whether a similar situation may occur in Lyme neuroborreliosis. Atypical forms of Borrelia burgdorferi spirochetes were induced(More)
Changes in mechanical properties of the cytoplasm have been implicated in cell motility, but there is little information about these properties in specific regions of the cell at specific stages of the cell migration process. Fish epidermal keratocytes with their stable shape and steady motion represent an ideal system to elucidate temporal and spatial(More)
We have determined the mechanical anisotropy of a single microtubule by simultaneously measuring the Young's and the shear moduli in vitro. This was achieved by elastically deforming the microtubule deposited on a substrate tailored by electron-beam lithography with a tip of an atomic force microscope. The shear modulus is 2 orders of magnitude lower than(More)
Measuring the biophysical properties of macromolecular complexes at work is a major challenge of modern biology. The protein complex composed of vesicle-associated membrane protein 2, synaptosomal-associated protein of 25 kDa, and syntaxin 1 [soluble N-ethyl-maleimide-sensitive factor attachment protein receptor (SNARE) complex] is essential for docking and(More)
Cell-wall mechanical properties play a key role in the growth and the protection of plants. However, little is known about genuine wall mechanical properties and their growth-related dynamics at subcellular resolution and in living cells. Here, we used atomic force microscopy (AFM) stiffness tomography to explore stiffness distribution in the cell wall of(More)
The cytoskeleton, composed of actin filaments, intermediate filaments, and microtubules, is a highly dynamic supramolecular network actively involved in many essential biological mechanisms such as cellular structure, transport, movements, differentiation, and signaling. As a first step to characterize the biophysical changes associated with cytoskeleton(More)
Microtubule-associated protein 1B is an essential protein during brain development and neurite outgrowth and was studied by several assays to further characterize actin as a major interacting partner. Tubulin and actin co-immunoprecipitated with MAP1B at similar ratios throughout development. Their identity was identified by mass spectrometry and was(More)