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Forest fragmentation, the disruption in the continuity of forest habitat, is hypothesized to be a major cause of population decline for some species of forest birds because fragmentation reduces nesting (reproductive) success. Nest predation and parasitism by cowbirds increased with forest fragmentation in nine midwestern (United States) landscapes that(More)
Practically all animals are affected by humans, especially in urban areas. Although most species respond negatively to urbanization, some thrive in human-dominated settings. A central question in urban ecology is why some species adapt well to the presence of humans and others do not. We show that Northern Mockingbirds (Mimus polyglottos) nesting on the(More)
Tropical montane species are characterized by narrow elevational distributions. Recent perspectives on mechanisms maintaining these restricted distributions have emphasized abiotic processes, but biotic processes may also play a role in their establishment or maintenance. One historically popular hypothesis, especially for birds, is that interspecific(More)
We studied size-abundance relationships in a species-rich Amazonian bird community and found that the slope of the logarithmic relationship between population density and bodymass (b = -0.22) is significantly shallower than expected under Damuth's energetic equivalence rule (EER), which states that population energy use (PEU) is independent of species body(More)
Nest predators can adversely affect the viability of songbird populations, and their impact is exacerbated in fragmented habitats. Despite substantial research on this predator-prey interaction, however, almost all of the focus has been on the birds rather than their nest predators, thereby limiting our understanding of the factors that bring predators and(More)
In many species, territorial neighbours fight to establish their mutual border and then develop a truce, known as the dear-enemy phenomenon, characterized by reduced vigilance and aggression along the border. We present evidence that among male red-winged blackbirds (Agelaius phoeniceus) the dear-enemy relationship is a form of reciprocal conditional(More)
Habitat loss and fragmentation has long been considered the primary cause for biodiversity loss and ecosystem degradation worldwide, and is a key research topic in landscape ecology (Wu 2013). Habitat fragmentation often refers to the reduction of continuous tracts of habitat to smaller, spatially distinct remnant patches, and habitat loss typically occurs(More)