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Forest fragmentation, the disruption in the continuity of forest habitat, is hypothesized to be a major cause of population decline for some species of forest birds because fragmentation reduces nesting (reproductive) success. Nest predation and parasitism by cowbirds increased with forest fragmentation in nine midwestern (United States) landscapes that(More)
Practically all animals are affected by humans, especially in urban areas. Although most species respond negatively to urbanization, some thrive in human-dominated settings. A central question in urban ecology is why some species adapt well to the presence of humans and others do not. We show that Northern Mockingbirds (Mimus polyglottos) nesting on the(More)
Most forest birds include arthropods in their diet, sometimes specializing on arthropods that consume plant foliage. Experimental tests of whether bird predation on arthropods can reduce plant damage, however, are few and restricted to relatively low-diversity systems. Here, we describe an experimental test in a diverse tropical forest of whether birds(More)
Birds searching for insects in the canopy of a northern hardwoods forest depart significantly from random in their use of tree species, even when these trees are generally similar in life form. All 10 foliage-dwelling bird species in the Hubbard Brook forest showed preferences for Yellow Birch, most had an aversion to Beech and Sugar Maple, and a few had(More)
The Hawaiian Islands have lost nearly all their native seed dispersers, but have gained many frugivorous birds and fleshy-fruited plants through introductions. Introduced birds may not only aid invasions of exotic plants but also may be the sole dispersers of native plants. We assessed seed dispersal at the ecotone between native- and exotic-dominated(More)
Tropical montane species are characterized by narrow elevational distributions. Recent perspectives on mechanisms maintaining these restricted distributions have emphasized abiotic processes, but biotic processes may also play a role in their establishment or maintenance. One historically popular hypothesis, especially for birds, is that interspecific(More)
Why do many hosts accept costly avian brood parasitism even when parasitic eggs and nestlings differ dramatically in appearance from their own? Scientists argue that evolutionary lag or equilibrium can explain this evolutionary enigma. Few, however, consider the potential of parasitic birds to enforce acceptance by destroying eggs or nestlings of hosts that(More)
American robins (Turdus migratorius) breeding in the Housatonic River (MA, USA) watershed were studied in the field in 2001 to determine whether productivity was adversely affected by exposure to polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), as would be suggested by extrapolation from laboratory studies on other avian species. The study involved identifying nests(More)
Habitat loss and fragmentation has long been considered the primary cause for biodiversity loss and ecosystem degradation worldwide, and is a key research topic in landscape ecology (Wu 2013). Habitat fragmentation often refers to the reduction of continuous tracts of habitat to smaller, spatially distinct remnant patches, and habitat loss typically occurs(More)