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Spline generated surface Laplacian temporal wave forms are presented as a method to improve both spatial and temporal resolution of evoked EEG responses. Middle latency and the N1 components of the auditory evoked response were used to compare potential-based methods with surface Laplacian methods in the time domain. Results indicate that surface Laplacians(More)
Spline generated surface Laplacians are introduced as an effective method for estimating neocortical source activity at moderate scales. The method appears to be robust to the unavoidable perturbations of measured potentials and errors of head geometry and resistivity that are certain to occur in clinical or research settings. In particular, we have derived(More)
N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA) receptors (NMDARs) are implicated in synaptic plasticity and modulation of glutamatergic excitatory transmission. Effect of NMDAR activation on inhibitory GABAergic transmission remains largely unknown. Here, we report that a brief application of NMDA could induce two distinct actions in CA1 pyramidal neurons in mouse hippocampal(More)
A "picture book" of surface potentials, Laplacians, and magnetic fields due to distributed, neocortical sources is presented. The mathematically simulated data is based on 4200 current sources at the macrocolumn scale. Estimated scalp surface maps are based on the three-concentic spheres model of the head. Emphasis is placed on the effects of sampling with(More)
A three dimensional digitizer was used to locate 62 positions on an electrode cap placed on the heads of nine subjects. Nonlinear regression methods were used to obtain the best fit sphere, ellipsoid, and perturbed ellipsoid. RMS errors varied from approximately 1 cm to 2 mm, depending on subject and surface chosen. The spherical coordinates of the standard(More)
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An interdisciplinary approach is applied toward the development of methods to improve spatial resolution of brain electrical activity. Methods to interpolate the potential distribution and to estimate the surface Laplacian from multi-channel data are presented and applied to human evoked potential data. Although developed for electroencephalographic (EEG)(More)
24 25 NMDA receptors (NMDARs) are implicated in synaptic plasticity and modulation of 26 glutamatergic excitatory transmission. Effect of NMDAR activation on inhibitory 27 GABAergic transmission remains largely unknown. Here we report that a brief 28 application of NMDA could induce two distinct actions in CA1 pyramidal neurons in 29 mouse hippocampal(More)
Integrins are heterodimers, but recent in vitro and in vivo experiments suggest that they are also able to associate through their transmembrane domains to form homomeric interactions. Two fundamental questions are the biological relevance of these aggregates and their form of interaction in the membrane domain. Although in vitro experiments have shown the(More)
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