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Journals and Conferences
One of the problems facing the builders of the `Information Superhighway' is how to charge for services. The high costs of billing systems suggest that prepayment mechanisms could play a large part in the solution. Yet how does one go about making an electronic prepayment system (or indeed any kind of payment system) robust? We describe some recent systems… (More)
We describe the successful introduction of cryp-tology into a new application area-protecting pre-payment electricity meters from token fraud. These meters are used by a number of utilities from Scotland to South Africa, and they present some interesting security challenges.
There is a long history of authentication protocols designed for ease of human use, which rely on users copying a short string of digits. Historical examples include telex test keys and early nuclear firing codes; familiar modern examples include prepayment meter codes and the 3-digit card verification values used in online shopping. In this paper, we show… (More)