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Oxidative stress is implicated in a number of neurological disorders including stroke, Parkinson's disease, and Alzheimer's disease. To study the effects of oxidative stress on neuronal cells, we have used an immortalized mouse hippocampal cell line (HT-22) that is particularly sensitive to glutamate. In these cells, glutamate competes for cystine uptake,(More)
Extensive nerve cell death occurs during the development of the central nervous system as well as in episodes of trauma and in neurodegenerative disease. The mechanistic details of how these cells die are poorly understood. Here we describe a unique oxidative stress-induced programmed cell death pathway called oxytosis, and outline pharmacological(More)
Peroxynitrite (ONOO-), formed by the reaction between nitric oxide (. NO) and superoxide, has been implicated in the etiology of numerous disease processes. Low molecular weight antioxidants, including uric acid, may minimize ONOO---mediated damage to tissues. The tissue-sparing effects of uric acid are typically attributed to oxidant scavenging; however,(More)
Mannan-binding lectin (MBL), previously called 'mannan-binding protein' or MBP, is a plasma C-type lectin which, upon binding to carbohydrate structures on micro-organisms, activates the classical pathway of complement. Purification of MBL relies on its Ca(2+)-dependent affinity for carbohydrate, but existing methods are susceptible to contamination by(More)
Presently, there is no intervention that can be used that preserves brain function in hypoxic-ischemic encephalopathy. This review covers the interventional strategies that are available to the health care worker at present and suggests a different approach to this frustrating problem. The proposal is to use clinically available interventions and combine(More)
Reactive oxygen metabolites generated from xanthine oxidase play an important role in the pathogenesis of ischemia-induced tissue injury. In a hemorrhagic shock model of ischemia-reperfusion, the intracellular enzyme xanthine oxidase was released into the vasculature. This intravascular source of superoxide (O2.-) and hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) interacted(More)
Reactive oxygen species (ROS) generated from xanthine oxidase (XO) play an important role in ischemia-induced injury. We hypothesize that XO and xanthine dehydrogenase (XDH) are released into the circulation with ischemia reperfusion to the human liver and intestine. Blood was drawn from a patient, before and at intervals after an aortic cross-clamp(More)
OBJECTIVE We hypothesized that multiple organ injury and concentrations of xanthine oxidase (an oxidant-generating enzyme released after hepatoenteric ischemia) would be decreased by the administration of a bolus of a colloid solution at reperfusion. DESIGN Randomized, masked, controlled animal study. SETTING University-based animal research facility.(More)
Hypoxia associated with perinatal events can result in brain damage in the neonate. In labor and eclampsia, hypoxia can be intermittent, which may result in more severe damage than sustained hypoxia. The pathogenesis of brain injury in sustained ischemia involves free radical production; therefore, we investigated whether higher levels of free radicals(More)
Stiff skin syndrome is a rare disorder characterized by pronounced skin induration, mild hypertrichosis and limited joint mobility, predominantly on the buttocks and thighs. Many heterogeneous cases have been reported under the name of stiff skin syndrome. We present a case of stiff skin syndrome from China, the diagnosis based on the patient's typical(More)