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While there is compelling evidence that the synaptic vesicle protein synaptotagmin serves as the major Ca2+ sensor for regulated exocytosis, it is not known how Ca2+ binding initiates membrane fusion. Here we report that Ca2+ increases the affinity, by approximately 2 orders of magnitude, between synaptotagmin and syntaxin 1, a component of the synaptic(More)
Synaptotagmin serves as the major Ca2+ sensor for regulated exocytosis from neurons. While the mechanism by which synaptotagmin regulates membrane fusion remains unknown, studies using Drosophila indicate that the molecule functions as a multimeric complex and that its second C2 domain is essential for efficient excitation-secretion coupling. Here we(More)
The membrane proteins SNAP-25, syntaxin, and synaptobrevin (vesicle-associated membrane protein) have recently been implicated as central elements of an exocytotic membrane fusion complex in neurons. Here we report that SNAP-25 binds directly to both syntaxin and synaptobrevin. The SNAP-25-binding domain of syntaxin lies between residues 199 and 243, within(More)
[1] We present a numerical eigenmode analysis of an intermediate El Niño–Southern Oscillation (ENSO) model which is driven by present-day observed background conditions as well as by simulated background conditions for the Last Glacial Maximum (LGM) about 21,000 years ago. The background conditions are obtained from two LGM simulations which were performed(More)
Synaptotagmin I is localized to synaptic vesicles where it functions in the calcium-triggered release of neurotransmitters. Here we demonstrate that synaptotagmin I covalently incorporated [3H]palmitate after metabolic labelling of PC-12 cells and rat brain synaptosomes. Labeling was localized to a tryptic fragment that contains a cluster of cysteine(More)
Syncollin is a protein of the pancreatic zymogen granule that was isolated through its ability to bind to syntaxin. Despite this in vitro interaction, it is now clear that syncollin is present on the luminal side of the zymogen granule membrane. Here we show that there are two pools of syncollin within the zymogen granule: one free in the lumen and the(More)
Syncollin is a pancreatic zymogen granule protein that was isolated through its ability to bind to syntaxin. Here we show that syncollin has a cleavable signal sequence and can be removed from granule membranes by washing with sodium carbonate. When membranes were subjected to Triton X-114 partitioning, syncollin was found predominantly in the aqueous(More)
by BoNT/A (residues 1 to 197) were reconstituted into vesicles (with 15% PS). As a control, a truncated version of SNAP-25 that mimics cleavage by BoNT/E (corresponding to residues 1 to 180), was tested in parallel [this cleavage event results in a more profound block of exocytosis (13)]. Fusion was abolished by the “BoNT/E” truncation (Fig. 4B). In(More)
The background state of the equatorial Pacific determines the prevalence of a ‘‘slow’’ recharge oscillatortype ENSO over a ‘‘fast’’ quasi-biennial surface-driven ENSO. The first is controlled to a large extent by the thermocline feedback, whereas the latter is related to enhanced zonal advective feedback. In this study, dynamical diagnostics are used to(More)
On the basis of introducing the working principle of the electric-controlled pressure amplifier for ultra high pressure common rail system, the three dimension flow field characteristics model of it was built by FIRE software, and the accuracy of this model was verified by the pressure curve in pressurization chamber which obtained via the ultra high(More)
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