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The complete nucleotide sequence (119,707 bp) of the black pine (Pinus thunbergii) chloroplast genome has been determined. It contains 4 rRNA genes and 32 tRNA genes. To our knowledge, the tRNAPro (GGG) gene has not been found in any other chloroplast genome analyzed. Sixty-one genes encoding proteins and 11 conserved open reading frames are also found.(More)
A method for the quantitative analysis of eumelanin and pheomelanin in tissues, e.g., hair and melanoma, is described. The method is simple and rapid because it does not require the isolation of melanins from the tissues. The rationale is that permanganate oxidation of eumelanin yields pyrrole-2,3,5-tricarboxylic acid (PTCA) which may serve as a(More)
BACKGROUND & AIMS Hypergastrinemia occurs frequently in association with acid suppression and Helicobacter infection, but its role in the progression to gastric atrophy and gastric cancer has not been well defined. METHODS The effects of hypergastrinemia, and possible synergy with Helicobacter felis infection, were investigated in insulin-gastrin(More)
Uridine-disphosphate glucuronosyl transferase (UGT) enzymes catalyze the formation of glucuronide conjugates of phase II metabolism. Methods for absolute quantification of UGT1A1 and UGT1A6 were previously established utilizing stable isotope peptide internal standards with liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS). The current method(More)
To evaluate whether mutations in the human multidrug resistance (MDR)-1 gene correlate with placental P-glycoprotein (PGP) expression, we sequenced the MDR-1 cDNA and measured PGP expression by Western blotting in 100 placentas obtained from Japanese women. Nine single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) were observed with an allelic frequency of 0.005 to(More)
The complete nucleotide sequence of the chloroplast genome (150,613 bp) from the unicellular green alga Chlorella vulgaris C-27 has been determined. The genome contains no large inverted repeat and has one copy of rRNA gene cluster consisting of 16S, 23S, and 5S rRNA genes. It contains 31 tRNA genes, of which the tRNALeu(GAG) gene has not been found in land(More)
Intracellular symbiotic bacteria belonging to the Cytophaga-Flavobacterium-Bacteroides lineage have recently been described and are widely distributed in arthropod species. The newly discovered bacteria, named Cardinium sp, cause the expression of various reproductive alterations in their arthropod hosts, including cytoplasmic incompatibility (CI),(More)
A microdose study of metformin was conducted to investigate the predictability of drug-drug interactions at the therapeutic dose (ThD). Healthy subjects received a microdose (100 µg) or ThD (250 mg) of metformin orally, with or without a potent and competitive multidrug and toxin extrusion (MATE) inhibitor, pyrimethamine (50 mg, p.o.), in a crossover(More)
BACKGROUND & AIMS One approach to the development of targeted cancer chemotherapy exploits increased uptake of the agent into neoplastic cells. In this scenario, higher concentrations of the agent in cancer cells are responsible for differential killing, whereas the low concentration in normal human cells decreases side effects. The aim of this study was to(More)
A functional cDNA clone encoding a mouse EP1 subtype of prostaglandin (PG) E receptor was isolated from a mouse cDNA library by cross-hybridization with the mouse thromboxane A2 receptor cDNA. The clone isolated encodes a protein consisting of 405 amino acid residues with putative seven-transmembrane domains. [3H]PGE2 specifically bound to the membrane of(More)