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Presently, blind people use a white stick as a tool for directing them when they move or walk. Although, the white stick is useful, it cannot give a high guarantee that it can protect blind people away from all level of obstacles. Many researchers have been interested in developing electronic devices to protect blind people away from obstacles with a higher(More)
Arranging university course’s timetable is problematic. It differs from other timetabling problems in terms of conditions. A complete university timetable must reach several requirements involving students, subjects, lecturers, classes, laboratory’s equipments, etc. This paper proposes a genetic algorithm model applied for improving(More)
Arranging examination timetable is problematic. It differs from other timetabling problems in terms of conditions. A complete timetable must reach several requirements involving course, group of student sitting the exam in that course, etc. It is similar to the course's timetable but not the same. Many differences between them include the way to create and(More)
There are many problems in university timetabling derived from various limitations and constraints. They comprise congruence and relation among group of students, subjects, lecturers, rooms, periods and time space. Genetic Algorithm (GA) was applied to deal with these problems. This paper shows the innovation of GA operator in level of elements. Fitness(More)
University timetabling problems have been interested by many researchers for more than a decade. However, there is no appropriated solution or computation model available to solve these problems successfully. This is because of many different version of timetabling problems. In this paper, a noval approach of Genetic Algorithm (GA) for solving educational(More)
Recently, there are a number of researchers interested in conducting and developing an electronic white stick, which is the electronic version of the normal white stick for blind people. Concept of inventing this electronic stick is developed from studying mechanism to determine close range or distance between the stick and the obstacles – by means(More)
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