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Weld pool depression, arc force, weld penetration, and their interrelations have been studied as a function of welding current. Pool depression and welding arc force have been measured simultaneously using a recently developed technique. We found quadratic dependence of arc force on current, confirming similar findings in previous studies. Pool depression(More)
This paper describes a new technique for simultaneous real-time measurement of weld pool surface geometry and arc force. The weld pool surface profile is measured using real-time radiography by vertical x-ray transmission through the weld. The information is received at a rate of 30 frames per second in the form of two-dimensional images which are digitized(More)
Due to the need to balance high performance with safety, ultrasonic inspection is routinely performed on many critical aerospace components at various stages of manufacturing. For instance, cylindrical titanium billets are inspected to look for nitrogen-stabilized defects (hard alpha). After forging, the material is machined into its sonic shape which(More)
The scattering treated here arises when elastic waves propagate within a heterogeneous medium defined by random spatial fluctuation of its elastic properties. Whereas classical analytical studies are based on lower-order scattering assumptions, numerical methods conversely present no such limitations by inherently incorporating multiple scattering. Until(More)
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