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The present study was conducted to determine the size of changes and the time point of those changes in biological rhythms during night-shift and whether they are associated with tolerance to shiftwork. The adrenal hormone cortisol has frequently been investigated in the field of shiftwork since it follows a pronounced circadian variation and has been(More)
The present study was conducted to investigate whether +/− pindolol antagonizes ipsapirone induced biobehavioral changes in a personality dependent way. Our previous work demonstrated that high impulsives show higher immune cell responses than low impulsive subjects upon treatment with ipsapirone. A total number of 80 healthy male volunteers received(More)
The present study was conducted to investigate if personality traits can be usefully related to serotonergic vs. dopaminergic action of the 5-HT1a-antagonist +/- pindolol. Forty healthy male volunteers (aged between 20 and 30 years) were randomly assigned to a placebo or a +/- pindolol (30 mg, oral dose) group in a double blind trial. Blood samples were(More)
 Three separate factors relevant to nicotine effects have been investigated in this experiment in combination: the experimentally induced expectation about receiving a sham or a nicotine cigarette, the mode of application of nicotine by a tablet, by a cigarette or not at all, while the belief of receiving the nicotine via smoking was held constant in each(More)
To understand the biological basis of anxiety, the following psychological aspects are discussed: The difference between "trait" and "state" anxiety, types of anxiety as related to knowledge about causes and consequences, anxiety as a chronological process involving coping strategies and different levels of responses. The lack of specificity is(More)
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