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The results of a multi-year research program to identify the factors associated with variations in subjective workload within and between different types of tasks are reviewed. Subjective evaluations of 10 workload-related factors were obtained from 16 different experiments. The experimental tasks included simple cognitive and manual control tasks, complex(More)
NASA-TLX is a multi-dimensional scale designed to obtain workload estimates from one or more operators while they are performing a task or immediately afterwards. The years of research that preceded subscale selection and the weighted averaging approach resulted in a tool that has proven to be reasonably easy to use and reliably sensitive to experimentally(More)
Acetaminophen (APAP) administration (600 mg/kg, ip) to 18-hr-fasted, 3-month-old male CD-1 mice results in necrosis of the renal convoluted proximal tubules. To selectively inhibit APAP activation in the kidney but not in the liver, 10-week-old male CD-1 mice were castrated under ether anesthesia and allowed to recover for a minimum of 2 weeks before use.(More)
Acetaminophen (APAP) is a commonly used analgesic and antipyretic agent which, in high doses, causes liver and kidney necrosis in man and animals. Damage in both target organs is greatly dependent upon biotransformation. However, in the CD1 mouse only males exhibit cytochrome P450-dependent nephrotoxicity and selective protein covalent binding. The lack of(More)
Various techniques have been developed to predict and measure pilot workload. This simulation was conducted in order to compare four widely used methods: a visual two-and four-choice reaction time task, time production, retrospective multi-dimensional subjective ratings and in-flight verbal workload estimates. Two scenarios with different levels of(More)
Three measures of workload were tested during 11 routine missions conducted by the NASA Kuiper Airborne Observatory: communications performance, subjective ratings, and heart rate. The activities that contributed to crewmember workload varied; the commander was responsible for aircraft control and navigation whereas the copilot handled communications with(More)
Administration of hepatotoxic doses of acetaminophen (APAP) to mice results in necrosis, not only of liver cells but of renal proximal tubules and bronchiolar and olfactory epithelium. In the liver, covalent binding is localized to the centrilobular hepatocytes which later undergo necrosis. This study was undertaken to compare the cellular distribution of(More)
Acetaminophen (APAP) administration (600 mg/kg, po) to fasted male CD-1 mice resulted in cellular damage to liver, lung, and kidney. An affinity purified antibody against covalently bound APAP was used to identify APAP-protein adducts in microsomal and cytosolic extracts from these target organs. The proteins were resolved on SDS-PAGE, transblotted to(More)
Peroxisome proliferators have been shown to diminish acetaminophen (APAP) hepatotoxicity (Biochem. Pharmacol. 43, 1395, 1992). To investigate the mechanistic basis for this protection CD-1 male mice were given corn oil or 500 mg clofibrate (CFB)/kg, ip, daily for 10 days. They were then fasted overnight and either killed without challenge or at 4 or 12 hr(More)
Human and mouse liver were exposed to an APAP-activating system, in vitro. Subsequent immunochemical analysis of electrophoretically separated proteins with an affinity-purified anti-APAP antibody indicated that when a cytosolic fraction from human liver was incubated with APAP, an NADPH-regenerating system, and mouse microsomes selective APAP binding(More)