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Following damage to peripheral nerves, a remarkable process of clearance and regeneration takes place. Axons downstream of the injury degenerate, while the nerve is remodeled to direct axonal regrowth. Schwann cells are important for this regenerative process. "Sensing" damaged axons, they dedifferentiate to a progenitor-like state, in which they aid nerve(More)
The peripheral nervous system has astonishing regenerative capabilities in that cut nerves are able to reconnect and re-establish their function. Schwann cells are important players in this process, during which they dedifferentiate to a progenitor/stem cell and promote axonal regrowth. Here, we report that fibroblasts also play a key role. Upon nerve cut,(More)
Hepcidin is the principal iron regulatory hormone, controlling the systemic absorption and remobilization of iron from intracellular stores. Recent in vivo studies have shown that hepcidin is down-regulated by erythropoiesis, anemia, and hypoxia, which meets the need of iron input for erythrocyte production. Erythropoietin (EPO) is the primary signal that(More)
BACKGROUND The p53, Rb, and Ras/PI3K pathways are implicated in the development of the majority of human cancers. A number of studies have established that these pathways cooperate at the level of the cell cycle leading to loss of normal proliferative controls. Here we have investigated how these signals influence a second critical component of tumor(More)
PURPOSE To validate and to report the results of a new inexpensive video-based method to measure upper eyelid motion during spontaneous blinks. METHODS Spontaneous blinks were simultaneously recorded in 21 healthy adult subjects for 5 minutes with magnetic search coil (MSC) and a portable video system (VDS) composed by a commercial high-speed camera(More)
PURPOSE To determine the location of contour abnormalities in Graves upper eyelid retraction. METHODS Multiple midpupil angular eyelid distances of 75 upper eyelids of 55 patients (mean age = 41.7 ± 13.3 SD years) in the inactive phase of Graves orbitopathy were measured with a recently developed custom-made software. Sixty eyelids of 60 normal subjects(More)
PURPOSE To measure the effect of müllerectomy from posterior approach on the amplitudes of spontaneous blinking and downward eyelid saccades. METHODS Spontaneous blinks and downward upper eyelid saccadic movements of 16 patients (23 eyelids) with Graves orbitopathy were measured before and after müllerectomy from posterior approach. A new video system was(More)
PURPOSE One of the most common problems of the surgical management of Graves upper eyelid retraction is the occurrence of eyelid contour abnormalities. In the present study, the postoperative contour of a large sample of eyelids of patients with Graves orbitopathy was measured. METHODS The postoperative upper eyelid contour of 62 eyes of 43 patients with(More)