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BACKGROUND Tobacco smoke and genetic susceptibility are risk factors for asthma and wheezing. The aim of this study was to investigate whether there is a combined effect of interleukin-13 gene (IL13) polymorphisms and tobacco smoke on persistent childhood wheezing and asthma. METHODS In the Isle of Wight birth cohort (UK, 1989-1999), five IL13 single(More)
The occurrence of asthma is weakly explained by known genetic variants. Epigenetic marks, DNA methylation (DNA-M) in particular, are considered to add to the explanation of asthma. However, no etiological model has yet been developed that integrates genetic variants and DNA-M. To explore a new model, we focused on one asthma candidate gene, the IL-4(More)
Identification of the genetic loci underlying asthma in humans has been hampered by variability in clinical phenotype, uncontrolled environmental influences, and genetic heterogeneity. To circumvent these complications, the genetic regulation of asthma-associated phenotypes was studied in a murine model. We characterized the strain distribution patterns for(More)
Eczema is a prevalent skin disease that is mainly characterized by systemic deviation of immune response and defective epidermal barrier. Th2 cytokines, such as IL-13 and transcription factor STAT6 are key elements in the inflammatory response that characterize allergic disorders, including eczema. Previous genetic association studies showed inconsistent(More)
BACKGROUND Equine Multiple Congenital Ocular Anomalies (MCOA) syndrome consists of a diverse set of abnormalities predominantly localized to the frontal part of the eye. The disease is in agreement with a codominant mode of inheritance in our horse material. Animals presumed to be heterozygous for the mutant allele have cysts originating from the temporal(More)
Interleukin (IL-) 36 cytokines (previously designated as novel IL-1 family member cytokines; IL-1F5- IL-1F10) constitute a novel cluster of cytokines structurally and functionally similar to members of the IL-1 cytokine cluster. The effects of IL-36 cytokines in inflammatory lung disorders remains poorly understood. The current study sought to investigate(More)
Genetic effects on asthma of genes in the T-helper 2 (Th2) pathway may interact with epigenetic factors including DNA methylation. We hypothesized that interactions between genetic variants and methylation in genes in this pathway (IL4, IL4R, IL13, GATA3, and STAT6) influence asthma risk, that such influences are age-dependent, and that methylation of some(More)
The syndrome Multiple Congenital Ocular Anomalies (MCOA) is the collective name ascribed to heritable congenital eye defects in horses. Individuals homozygous for the disease allele (MCOA phenotype) have a wide range of eye anomalies, while heterozygous horses (Cyst phenotype) predominantly have cysts that originate from the temporal ciliary body, iris,(More)
BACKGROUND Susceptibility to atopy originates from effects of the environment on genes. Birth order has been identified as a risk factor for atopy and evidence for some candidate genes has been accumulated; however no study has yet assessed a birth order-gene interaction. OBJECTIVE To investigate the interaction of IL13 polymorphisms with birth order on(More)
BACKGROUND In settings in which diseases wax and wane, there is a need to measure disease dynamics in longitudinal studies. Traditional measures of disease occurrence (eg, cumulative incidence) do not address change or stability or are limited to stable cohorts (eg, incidence) and may thus lead to erroneous conclusions. To illustrate how different measures(More)