S E Winders

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Gender differences in overall tobacco use clearly exist. In general, men are more likely to use tobacco products than are women. However, this simple generalization, ignoring type of tobacco products, time, and culture, masks many more interesting gender differences in tobacco use. There are pronounced gender differences in tobacco use of specific tobacco(More)
Women often report that they smoke cigarettes to avoid weight gains and that they relapse after abstaining from tobacco because of weight gains. Men also report these concerns but to a lesser extent. This gender difference may reflect sociological and cultural pressures about physical appearance, or it may reflect sex differences in the effects of nicotine.(More)
Estimates of postcessation weight gain vary widely. This study determined the magnitude of weight gain in a cohort using both point prevalence and continuous abstinence criteria for cessation. Participants were 196 volunteers who participated in a smoking cessation program and who either continuously smoked (n = 118), were continuously abstinent (n = 51),(More)
Participants in an 8-session, community based smoking cessation intervention rated whether they would stay quit if they experienced weight gain. The majority reported that they would not relapse to smoking, even after a 20-lb, (9.07-kg) weight gain. Those who were weight concerned were more likely to be female, to weight less and be normal or underweight,(More)
Nicotine administration and cessation have greater effects on body weight and eating behavior in female than in male rats. These generalizations are based on studies of body weight and eating behavior for 2-3 week periods before, during, and after nicotine administration. Therefore, the sex differences may reflect differences in sensitivity to nicotine or(More)
The present study determined the effect of chronic PPA infusion and withdrawal on weight regulation. Male Sprague-Dawley rats received PPA (0, 90 or 180 mg/kg) via miniosmotic pumps for 2 weeks. Body weight and food and water consumption were measured daily before, during, and for 2 weeks after PPA infusion. Additionally, body weight was measured once 6(More)
The present experiment examined effects of nicotine on body weight of male and female rats when Oreo cookies, potato chips, laboratory chow, and water were available. Body weight and eating behavior were measured for 17-day periods before, during, and after nicotine or saline administration. There was an inverse relationship between nicotine and body(More)
The effects of physical and psychological stress on circulating nicotine levels and conversion of nicotine to cotinine were examined in the rat. Animals received one of three dosages of nicotine (0, 6, and 12 mg/kg) via miniosmotic pumps. On day 14 of drug infusion, animals from each drug condition were randomly assigned to one of three stress conditions(More)
This study sought to determine whether depressive symptoms and/or platelet serotonin receptor (5HT2A) density are associated with increased platelet activation (PA) found among smokers. Flow cytometric detection of PA was used to study 36 smokers and 16 nonsmokers, aged 18 to 48 years. Subjects were tested at baseline and after either smoking 2 cigarettes(More)
Over successive periods of weight loss and regain caused by deprivation and refeeding, weight loss becomes slower during deprivation and weight is regained quicker during refeeding. One period of nicotine administration and termination results in changes in intake and weight gain comparable to that caused by one period of food deprivation and refeeding.(More)