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Many species of microalgae produce greatly enhanced amounts of triacylglycerides (TAGs), the key product for biodiesel production, in response to specific environmental stresses. Improvement of TAG production by microalgae through optimization of growth regimes is of great interest. This relies on understanding microalgal lipid metabolism in relation to(More)
A simple method is described for determining the size of sonoluminescence bubbles generated by acoustic cavitation. The change in the intensity of sonoluminescence, from 4 ms pulses of 515 kHz ultrasound, as a function of the "off" time between acoustic pulses, is the basis of the method. The bubble size determined in water was in the range of 2.8-3.7 mum.
Milk protein is often standardised prior to cheese-making using low concentration factor ultrafiltration retentate (LCUFR) but the effect of LCUFR addition on the microstructure of full fat gel, curd and Cheddar cheese is not known. In this work, Cheddar cheeses were made from cheese-milk with or without LCUFR addition using a protein concentration of(More)
The inflammasome is hypothesized to be a key mediator of the response to physiological and psychological stressors, and its dysregulation may be implicated in major depressive disorder. Inflammasome activation causes the maturation of caspase-1 and activation of interleukin (IL)-1β and IL-18, two proinflammatory cytokines involved in neuroimmunomodulation,(More)
The sonication of an aqueous solution generates cavitation bubbles, which may coalesce and produce larger bubbles. This paper examines the effect of surface-active solutes on such bubble coalescence in an ultrasonic field. A novel capillary system has been designed to measure the change in the total volume resulting from the sonication of aqueous solutions(More)
Acoustic cavitation is the fundamental process responsible for the initiation of most of the sonochemical reactions in liquids. Acoustic cavitation originates from the interaction between sound waves and bubbles. In an acoustic field, bubbles can undergo growth by rectified diffusion, bubble-bubble coalescence, bubble dissolution or bubble collapse leading(More)
It has previously been reported that the addition of low concentrations of ionic surfactants enhances the steady-state sonoluminescence (SL) intensity relative to water (Ashokkumar; et al. J. Phys. Chem. B 1997, 101, 10845). In the current study, both sonoluminescence and passive cavitation detection (PCD) were used to examine the acoustic cavitation field(More)
Acoustic energy as a form of physical energy has drawn the interests of both industry and scientific communities for its potential use as a food processing and preservation tool. Currently, most such applications deal with ultrasonic waves with relatively high intensities and acoustic power densities and are performed mostly in liquids. In this review, we(More)
The efficient production of nanoemulsions, with oil droplet sizes of less than 100nm would facilitate the inclusion of oil soluble bio-active agents into a range of water based foods. Small droplet sizes lead to transparent emulsions so that product appearance is not altered by the addition of an oil phase. In this paper, we demonstrate that it is possible(More)
The sonication-induced changes in the structural and thermal properties of proteins in reconstituted whey protein concentrate (WPC) solutions were examined. Differential scanning calorimetry, UV-vis, fluorescence and circular dichroism spectroscopic techniques were used to determine the thermal properties of proteins, measure thiol groups and monitor(More)