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Many species of microalgae produce greatly enhanced amounts of triacylglycerides (TAGs), the key product for biodiesel production, in response to specific environmental stresses. Improvement of TAG production by microalgae through optimization of growth regimes is of great interest. This relies on understanding microalgal lipid metabolism in relation to(More)
Milk protein is often standardised prior to cheese-making using low concentration factor ultrafiltration retentate (LCUFR) but the effect of LCUFR addition on the microstructure of full fat gel, curd and Cheddar cheese is not known. In this work, Cheddar cheeses were made from cheese-milk with or without LCUFR addition using a protein concentration of(More)
A simple method is described for determining the size of sonoluminescence bubbles generated by acoustic cavitation. The change in the intensity of sonoluminescence, from 4 ms pulses of 515 kHz ultrasound, as a function of the "off" time between acoustic pulses, is the basis of the method. The bubble size determined in water was in the range of 2.8-3.7 mum.
The inflammasome is hypothesized to be a key mediator of the response to physiological and psychological stressors, and its dysregulation may be implicated in major depressive disorder. Inflammasome activation causes the maturation of caspase-1 and activation of interleukin (IL)-1β and IL-18, two proinflammatory cytokines involved in neuroimmunomodulation,(More)
Acoustic cavitation is the fundamental process responsible for the initiation of most of the sonochemical reactions in liquids. Acoustic cavitation originates from the interaction between sound waves and bubbles. In an acoustic field, bubbles can undergo growth by rectified diffusion, bubble-bubble coalescence, bubble dissolution or bubble collapse leading(More)
It has previously been reported that the addition of low concentrations of ionic surfactants enhances the steady-state sonoluminescence (SL) intensity relative to water (Ashokkumar; et al. J. Phys. Chem. B 1997, 101, 10845). In the current study, both sonoluminescence and passive cavitation detection (PCD) were used to examine the acoustic cavitation field(More)
Ultrasound is known to promote nucleation of crystals and produce a narrower size distribution in a controlled and reproducible manner for the crystallisation process. Although there are various theories that suggest cavitation bubbles are responsible for sonocrystallisation, most studies use power ultrasonic horns that generate both intense shear and(More)
The lipid characteristics of microalgae are known to differ between species and change with growth conditions. This work provides a methodology for lipid characterization that enables selection of the optimal strain, cultivation conditions, and processing pathway for commercial biodiesel production from microalgae. Two different microalgal species,(More)
An industrially relevant method for disrupting microalgal cells and preferentially extracting neutral lipids for large-scale biodiesel production was demonstrated on pastes (20-25% solids) of Nannochloropsis sp. The highly resistant Nannochloropsis sp. cells. were disrupted by incubation for 15 h at 37°C followed by high pressure homogenization at 1200 ±(More)
The susceptibility to rupture of the microalgae Nannochloropsis sp., Chlorella sp. and Tetraselmis suecica by high pressure homogenization was compared quantitatively to the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Methods for quantifying cell rupture were investigated including cell counting, turbidity, metabolite release and particle sizing. Cell counting was the(More)