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Angiogenesis is thought to depend on a precise balance of positive and negative regulation. Angiopoietin-1 (Ang1) is an angiogenic factor that signals through the endothelial cell-specific Tie2 receptor tyrosine kinase. Like vascular endothelial growth factor, Ang1 is essential for normal vascular development in the mouse. An Ang1 relative, termed(More)
A recent explosion in newly discovered vascular growth factors has coincided with exploitation of powerful new genetic approaches for studying vascular development. An emerging rule is that all of these factors must be used in perfect harmony to form functional vessels. These new findings also demand re-evaluation of therapeutic efforts aimed at regulating(More)
The mitogen-activated protein kinase/extracellular signal-regulated kinase (MAPK/ERK) signaling cascade contributes to synaptic plasticity and to long-term memory formation, yet whether MAPK/ERK controls activity-dependent gene expression critical for long-lasting changes at the synapse and what the events underlying transduction of the signal are remain(More)
The EPH-related transmembrane tyrosine kinases constitute the largest known family of receptor-like tyrosine kinases, with many members displaying specific patterns of expression in the developing and adult nervous system. A family of cell surface-bound ligands exhibiting distinct, but overlapping, specificities for these EPH-related kinases was identified.(More)
A variety of findings seem to functionally link brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) and neurotrophin-3 (NT-3), while distinguishing both of these factors from the third member of the neurotrophin family, nerve growth factor (NGF). Here we demonstrate that all three of these neuronal survival molecules bind similarly to the low affinity NGF receptor,(More)
BACKGROUND Thrombolysis for acute ischaemic stroke has been investigated in several clinical trials, with variable results. We have assessed the safety and efficacy of intravenous thrombolysis with alteplase (0.9 mg/kg bodyweight) within 6 h of stroke onset. METHODS This non-angiographic, randomised, double-blind, trial enrolled 800 patients in Europe,(More)
The involvement of the hippocampus and the prefrontal cortex in cognitive processes and particularly in learning and memory has been known for a long time. However, the specific role of the projection which connects these two structures has remained elusive. The existence of a direct monosynaptic pathway from the ventral CA1 region of the hippocampus and(More)
Although neurotrophic factors were originally isolated on the basis of their ability to support the survival of neurons, these molecules are now thought to influence many aspects of the development and maintenance of the nervous system. Identifying the receptors for these neurotrophic factors should aid in identifying the cells on which these factors act(More)
Ciliary neurotrophic factor (CNTF) has a variety of actions within the nervous system. While some of the actions of leukemia inhibitory factor (LIF) on neurons resemble those of CNTF, LIF also has broad actions outside of the nervous system that in many cases mimic those of interleukin-6 (IL-6). Comparison of the tyrosine phosphorylations and gene(More)
The ciliary neurotrophic factor (CNTF) receptor complex is shown here to include the CNTF binding protein (CNTFR alpha) as well as the components of the leukemia inhibitory factor (LIF) receptor, LIFR beta (the LIF binding protein) and gp130 [the signal transducer of interleukin-6 (IL-6)]. Thus, the conversion of a bipartite LIF receptor into a tripartite(More)