Visceral hypersensitivity in gastric fundus is a possible pathogenesis for functional dyspepsia. The cortical representation of gastric fundus is still unclear. Growing evidence shows that the insula, but not the primary or secondary somatosensory region (SI or SII), may be the cortical target for visceral pain. Animal studies have also demonstrated that… (More)
When patients presented with malaria-like illness in the areas endemic for Babesia infection, physicians should keep Babesiosis high on their differential list. Co-infection with Borrelia should be considered in patients with atypical presentation or with a poor response to proper therapy.
A poorly reversible and chronic airflow obstruction is the cardinal feature of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). However, the condition is heterogeneous in many other ways. Our vigorous attempt to phenotype or endotype COPD testifies this fact. It is not the disease entity mechanism alone but its interaction with a whole host of… (More)