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In vitro, β-amyloid (Aβ) peptides form polymorphic fibrils, with molecular structures that depend on growth conditions, plus various oligomeric and protofibrillar aggregates. Here, we investigate structures of human brain-derived Aβ fibrils, using seeded fibril growth from brain extract and data from solid-state nuclear magnetic resonance and electron(More)
CD1 molecules function to present lipid-based antigens to T cells. Here we present the crystal structure of CD1c at 2.5 Å resolution, in complex with the pathogenic Mycobacterium tuberculosis antigen mannosyl-β1-phosphomycoketide (MPM). CD1c accommodated MPM's methylated alkyl chain exclusively in the A' pocket, aided by a unique exit portal underneath the(More)
Methods for the quantitative derivatization of amino acids with phenylisothiocyanate and for the separation and quantitation of the resulting phenylthiocarbamyl derivatives by reverse-phase high-performance liquid chromatography are described. Phenylthiocarbamylation of amino acids proceeds smoothly in 5 to 10 min at room temperature. Coupling solvents,(More)
Recent solid-state NMR data (1) demonstrate that Abeta(1)(-)(40) adopts a conformation in amyloid fibrils with two in-register, parallel beta-sheets, connected by a bend structure encompassing residues D(23)VGSNKG(29), with a close contact between the side chains of Asp23 and Lys28. We hypothesized that forming this bend structure might be rate-limiting in(More)
A potential goal in the prevention or therapy of Alzheimer's disease is to decrease or eliminate neuritic plaques composed of fibrillar beta-amyloid (Abeta). In this paper we describe N-methyl amino acid containing congeners of the hydrophobic "core domain" of Abeta that inhibit the fibrillogenesis of full-length Abeta. These peptides also disassemble(More)
Insulin-degrading enzyme (IDE) is a zinc metalloprotease that hydrolyzes amyloid-beta (Abeta) and insulin, which are peptides associated with Alzheimer disease (AD) and diabetes, respectively. Our previous structural analysis of substrate-bound human 113-kDa IDE reveals that the N- and C-terminal domains of IDE, IDE-N and IDE-C, make substantial contact to(More)
This review considers the design, synthesis, and mechanistic assessment of peptide-based fibrillogenesis inhibitors, mainly focusing on beta-amyloid, but generalizable to other aggregating proteins and peptides. In spite of revision of the "amyloid hypothesis," the investigation and development of fibrillogenesis inhibitors remain important scientific and(More)
Glyoxalase 1 (Glo1) expression has previously been associated with anxiety in mice; however, its role in anxiety is controversial, and the underlying mechanism is unknown. Here, we demonstrate that GLO1 increases anxiety by reducing levels of methylglyoxal (MG), a GABAA receptor agonist. Mice overexpressing Glo1 on a Tg bacterial artificial chromosome(More)
In the quantitation of amino acids by precolumn derivatization with phenylisothiocyanate, the yields of N'-phenylthiocarbamyl (PTC)-aspartate and PTC-glutamate from protein hydrolysates are often suboptimal, particularly in analyses following rapid hydrolysis at 160 degrees C. In this paper we show that these losses are due to the presence of materials(More)
The pathognomonic plaques of Alzheimer's disease are composed primarily of the 39- to 43-aa beta-amyloid (Abeta) peptide. Crosslinking of Abeta peptides by tissue transglutaminase (tTg) indicates that Gln15 of one peptide is proximate to Lys16 of another in aggregated Abeta. Here we report how the fibril structure is resolved by mapping interstrand(More)