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In vitro, β-amyloid (Aβ) peptides form polymorphic fibrils, with molecular structures that depend on growth conditions, plus various oligomeric and protofibrillar aggregates. Here, we investigate structures of human brain-derived Aβ fibrils, using seeded fibril growth from brain extract and data from solid-state nuclear magnetic resonance and electron(More)
Methods for the quantitative derivatization of amino acids with phenylisothiocyanate and for the separation and quantitation of the resulting phenylthiocarbamyl derivatives by reverse-phase high-performance liquid chromatography are described. Phenylthiocarbamylation of amino acids proceeds smoothly in 5 to 10 min at room temperature. Coupling solvents,(More)
Cancers often relapse after adoptive therapy, even though specific T cells kill cells from the same cancer efficiently in vitro. We found that tumor eradication by T cells required high affinities of the targeted peptides for major histocompatibility complex (MHC) class I. Affinities of at least 10 nM were required for relapse-free regression. Only(More)
CD1 molecules function to present lipid-based antigens to T cells. Here we present the crystal structure of CD1c at 2.5 Å resolution, in complex with the pathogenic Mycobacterium tuberculosis antigen mannosyl-β1-phosphomycoketide (MPM). CD1c accommodated MPM's methylated alkyl chain exclusively in the A' pocket, aided by a unique exit portal underneath the(More)
Glyoxalase 1 (Glo1) expression has previously been associated with anxiety in mice; however, its role in anxiety is controversial, and the underlying mechanism is unknown. Here, we demonstrate that GLO1 increases anxiety by reducing levels of methylglyoxal (MG), a GABAA receptor agonist. Mice overexpressing Glo1 on a Tg bacterial artificial chromosome(More)
The genetic lesion underlying familial British dementia (FBD), an autosomal dominant neurodegenerative disorder, is a T-A transversion at the termination codon of the BRI gene. The mutant gene encodes BRI-L, the precursor of ABri peptides that accumulate in amyloid deposits in FBD brain. We now report that both BRI-L and its wild-type counterpart, BRI, were(More)
To explain why solid cancers grow or are rejected, we examined how the tumor stroma affected the level of antigen expression necessary to induce an immune response. We applied a tamoxifen-regulated Cre-loxP system to induce a model SIYRYYGL antigen recognized by the 2C T cell receptor. Solid tumors expressing the antigen at lower levels grew, whereas solid(More)
Monoclonal antibodies have become important therapeutic agents against certain cancers. Many tumor-specific antigens are mutant proteins that are predominantly intracellular and thus not readily accessible to monoclonal antibodies. We found that a wild-type transmembrane protein could be transformed into a tumor-specific antigen. A somatic mutation in the(More)
In the quantitation of amino acids by precolumn derivatization with phenylisothiocyanate, the yields of N'-phenylthiocarbamyl (PTC)-aspartate and PTC-glutamate from protein hydrolysates are often suboptimal, particularly in analyses following rapid hydrolysis at 160 degrees C. In this paper we show that these losses are due to the presence of materials(More)