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A novel structure distributed active transformer (DAT), which significantly reduces the coupling from the DAT to the feed line is demonstrated. A grounded guard line is implemented to isolate the feed line from the magnetic field of the DAT. The measured result of the DAT on a GaAs substrate shows a 10.5-dB reduction in the coupling. To reduce DAT loss, an… (More)
This paper demonstrated the first 2-stage, 2.8W, 1.8V, 1.9GHz fully-integrated DAT power amplifier with 50Ω input and output matching using 0.18µm CMOS transistors. It has a small-signal gain of 27dB. The amplifier provides 2.8W of power into a 50Ω load with a PAE of 50%.
There is a strong drive toward handheld communication devices with building blocks that are fully integrated in standard CMOS technologies. Although there are obvious cost, size, and repeata-bility advantages, it is particularly challenging to implement fully integrated power amplifiers with no external matching in standard CMOS under the large supply… (More)
Exposure of tomato plants (Lycopersicon esculentum Mill. cv. Floramerica) to chilling temperatures in the dark for as little as 12 h resulted in a sizable inhibition in the rate of light- and CO2-saturated photosynthesis. However, when photosynthesis was measured at low light intensity, the inhibition disappeared and the quantum yield of CO2 reduction was… (More)