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BACKGROUND Little is known about outcomes of community-based treatment programs for adolescents with drug problems. METHODS We studied 1167 adolescents (age range, 11-18 years; 368 females, 799 males) from 4 US cities (Pittsburgh, Pa; Minneapolis, Minn; Chicago, Ill; and Portland, Ore) using a naturalistic, nonexperimental evaluation design. These(More)
STUDY OBJECTIVES To verify if error monitoring, involving detection and remedial actions, is affected by sleep deprivation. DESIGN Event-related brain potentials (ERPs) and electroencephalogram spectrum during performance of Flanker task were obtained in a within-subject, counter-balanced, repeated-measures design. SETTING Sleep deprivation and data(More)
Using data collected from cocaine-abusing patients who participated in the Drug Abuse Treatment Outcome Studies (DATOS), we contrasted patients in treatment for the first time and patients having extensive histories of prior treatment to identify factors associated with better outcomes in each group. Compared with first-timers, treatment-experienced(More)
The ability to flexibly shift between tasks is central to cognitive control, but whether the same brain mechanisms mediate shifting across different tasks is unknown. In this study, we investigated whether variations in stimulus-dimensions or response-mapping might influence task switching in terms of its preparatory processes, as reflected in cue-locked(More)
STUDY OBJECTIVES To examine whether monetary incentives attenuate the negative effects of sleep deprivation on cognitive performance in a flanker task that requires higher-level cognitive-control processes, including error monitoring. DESIGN Twenty-four healthy adults aged 18 to 23 years were randomly divided into 2 subject groups: one received and the(More)
Task switching requires maintaining readiness to execute any task of a given set of tasks. However, when tasks switch, the readiness to execute the now-irrelevant task generates interference, as seen in the task rule incongruence effect. Overcoming such interference requires fine-tuned inhibition that impairs task readiness only minimally. In an experiment(More)
The goals of this study were to determine whether there is an age-related flanker effect, whether elderly adults produce compensatory responses to overcome their deficiencies, and the extent to which any compensatory responses vary depending on the degree of task demands. To achieve these goals, we manipulated different degrees of demands in cognitive(More)
We describe a protocol to examine various hypothetical models of task switching. This protocol analyzes two event-related potentials--lateralized readiness potential (LRP) and P300--to infer the roles of advance reconfiguration and carry-over effect on task switching. Participants performed two tasks in a random order. On each trial a task from the previous(More)
Three experiments (ns = 14 per group) are reported which investigated the ability of Parkinson patients to remember the characteristics of conditions under which a memory was acquired. In Exp. 1, subjects were required to indicate for each item in a recognition memory test whether it was spoken by Experimenter 1 or by Experimenter 2 (external-external(More)
The MRL-lpr/lpr and MRL-(++) mice were studied for the expression of cytokines in the spleen, lymph node, thymus, kidney and brain through the reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR). The frequencies of IL-4 and TNF-alpha expression in the thymus and spleen were significantly higher in MRL-lpr/lpr mice than in MRL-(++) mice from the age of(More)