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Recent animal studies have shown that aggressive saline infusion may produce significant mortality in models of moderately severe (20-30 mL/kg) uncontrolled hemorrhage. The postulated mechanism is an increase in hemorrhage that accompanies restoration of normal blood pressure. Although aggressive saline infusion and restoration of blood pressure appear(More)
Midazolam is the first water-soluble benzodiazepine. As with other benzodiazepines it has amnestic, sedative, hypnotic, anxiolytic, and anticonvulsant properties. Midazolam is about two to four times more potent than diazepam. Midazolam has been extensively used for a variety of outpatient procedures, but there has been no documentation of its safety in(More)
We prospectively studied the use of succinylcholine chloride and pancuronium bromide by the physician/nurse flight team of our hospital-based helicopter ambulance service. Patients who received these agents at the scene of an accident (prehospital group, n = 39) were compared with patients who were paralyzed by the flight team in the emergency department of(More)
To evaluate the therapeutic effectiveness of intravenous bretylium tosylate as a first-line drug for patients in cardiopulmonary arrest, a randomized, double-blind study was conducted, comparing bretylium with a normal saline placebo. Fifty-nine patients presenting to the emergency department with cardiopulmonary arrest due mainly to ventricular(More)
STUDY HYPOTHESIS In a model of near-fatal hemorrhage that incorporates a vascular injury, stepwise increases in blood pressure associated with aggressive crystalloid resuscitation will result in increased hemorrhage volume and mortality. DESIGN This study used a swine model of potentially lethal hemorrhage in the presence of a vascular lesion to compare(More)
The benefit of IV fluid therapy in the prehospital management of hemorrhagic shock is unproven. We used a reproducible, lightly anesthetized model of porcine continuous hemorrhage to evaluate the usefulness of pre-hospital IV fluid therapy. Incorporated into the model were time delays associated with ambulance request and dispatch, patient evaluation and(More)
Recent animal studies of acute hemorrhage in the presence of a vascular injury have demonstrated improved survival and decreased hemorrhage volume with hypotensive resuscitation, but this has occurred at the expense of tissue perfusion. It was hypothesized that addition of an oxygen-carrying perfusate would improve tissue oxygen delivery during hypotensive(More)
STUDY OBJECTIVE To evaluate the speed, efficacy, and safety of the scapular manipulation technique in reducing acute anterior shoulder dislocations. DESIGN Prospective study. SETTING Urban emergency department with an annual census of 65,000 patients. PARTICIPANTS Forty-eight adult patients with acute anterior shoulder dislocation. INTERVENTIONS(More)
Recent studies in which animals were bled from a vascular injury rather than an intravascular catheter demonstrate increased blood loss and mortality with rapid volume expansion. The purpose of this study was to better define the importance of incorporating a vascular injury in animal models of acute hemorrhage. We directly compared the response to(More)