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Prevailing opinion holds that normal brain aging is characterized by substantial atrophy of cortical gray matter. However, this conclusion is based on earlier studies whose findings may be influenced by the inclusion of subjects with subclinical cognitive disorders like preclinical dementia. The present magnetic resonance imaging study tested this(More)
Atrophy in the medial temporal lobe is generally considered to be highly associated with age-related memory decline. Volume loss in the hippocampus and entorhinal cortex has extensively been investigated, but the posterior parts of the parahippocampal gyrus have received little attention. The present MRI study investigated whether volume differences in(More)
Advanced age is associated with declines in brain structure and in cognitive performance, but it is unclear which aspects of brain aging mediate cognitive declines. We inquired if individual differences in white matter integrity contribute to age differences in two cognitive domains with established vulnerability to aging: executive functioning and speed of(More)
The main aim of the present study was to compare volume differences in the hippocampus and parahippocampal gyrus as biomarkers of Alzheimer's disease (AD). Based on the previous findings, we hypothesized that there would be significant volume differences between cases of healthy aging, amnestic mild cognitive impairment (aMCI), and mild AD. Furthermore, we(More)
We investigated differences associated with age and hypertension, a common risk factor for vascular disease, in three aspects of white matter integrity--gross regional volumes of the white matter, volume of the white matter hyperintensities (WMH) and diffusion properties. We acquired MRI scans on 93 adult volunteers (age 50-77 years; 36 with diagnosis of(More)
To date, the exact pathogenesis of dementia is still unknown. The most frequently hypothesized initiating factor is an accumulation of the protein amyloid-β in the brain, which has been associated with dementia of the Alzheimer type. Another potentially important initiating factor is a disrupted blood-brain barrier. This can initiate cerebral(More)
The present study investigated prefrontal cortex (PFC) atrophy as a possible predictor of dementia. Eighty-eight older participants of the Maastricht Aging Study (MAAS) were administered for neuropsychological tests at baseline and after three years (t(3)). Magnetic resonance images were acquired at t(3) and nine years after baseline all participants were(More)
Neuropsychiatric symptoms (NPSs) have a large impact on the quality of life of patients with dementia. A few studies have compared neuropsychiatric disturbances between dementia subtypes, but the results were conflicting. In the present study, we investigated whether the prevalence of NPSs differs between Alzheimer's disease (AD) and vascular dementia(More)
Increasing evidence indicates that blood-brain barrier (BBB) impairment may play a role in the pathophysiology of cognitive decline and dementia. In vivo imaging studies are needed to quantify and localize the BBB defects during life, contemplating the circulatory properties. We reviewed the literature for imaging studies investigating BBB impairment in(More)
In this study, we present an accurate, reliable, robust, and time-efficient technique for a semi-automatic segmentation of neuroanatomically defined cortical structures in Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) scans. It involves manual drawing of the border of a region of interest (ROI), supported by three-dimensional (3D) visualization techniques (rendering),(More)