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We investigated differences associated with age and hypertension, a common risk factor for vascular disease, in three aspects of white matter integrity--gross regional volumes of the white matter, volume of the white matter hyperintensities (WMH) and diffusion properties. We acquired MRI scans on 93 adult volunteers (age 50-77 years; 36 with diagnosis of(More)
The present study investigated prefrontal cortex (PFC) atrophy as a possible predictor of dementia. Eighty-eight older participants of the Maastricht Aging Study (MAAS) were administered for neuropsychological tests at baseline and after three years (t(3)). Magnetic resonance images were acquired at t(3) and nine years after baseline all participants were(More)
Purpose To investigate whether the blood-brain barrier (BBB) leaks blood-circulating substances in patients with early forms of Alzheimer disease (AD), and if so, to examine the extent and pattern of leakage. Materials and Methods This study was approved by the local medical ethical committees of the Maastricht University Medical Center and Leiden(More)
The main aim of the present study was to compare volume differences in the hippocampus and parahippocampal gyrus as biomarkers of Alzheimer’s disease (AD). Based on the previous findings, we hypothesized that there would be significant volume differences between cases of healthy aging, amnestic mild cognitive impairment (aMCI), and mild AD. Furthermore, we(More)
Brain aging has been associated with both reduced and increased neural activity during task execution. The purpose of the present study was to investigate whether increased neural activation during memory encoding and retrieval is already present at the age of 60 as well as to obtain more insight into the mechanism behind increased activity. Eighteen young(More)
To date, the exact pathogenesis of dementia is still unknown. The most frequently hypothesized initiating factor is an accumulation of the protein amyloid-β in the brain, which has been associated with dementia of the Alzheimer type. Another potentially important initiating factor is a disrupted blood-brain barrier. This can initiate cerebral(More)
Advanced age is associated with declines in brain structure and in cognitive performance, but it is unclear which aspects of brain aging mediate cognitive declines. We inquired if individual differences in white matter integrity contribute to age differences in two cognitive domains with established vulnerability to aging: executive functioning and speed of(More)
The standard for differentiating between dementia subtypes is currently based on neuropathological changes and follows traditional nosological classifications. However, the high incidence of comorbid neuropathologies complicates the differentiation between dementia diagnoses in the clinic. The aim of this study was to investigate the grades of agreement(More)
The present study compares four different structural magnetic resonance imaging techniques used to measure gray matter (GM) atrophy in Alzheimer's disease (AD): manual and automated volumetry, cortical thickness (CT) and voxel-based morphometry (VBM). These techniques are used interchangeably in AD research and thus far it is unclear which technique is(More)
Medial temporal lobe (MTL) atrophy is considered to be one of the most important predictors of Alzheimer's disease (AD). This study investigates whether atrophy in parietal and prefrontal areas increases the predictive value of MTL atrophy in three groups of different cognitive status. Seventy-five older adults were classified as cognitively stable (n = 38)(More)