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The absence of dystrophin at the muscle membrane leads to Duchenne muscular dystrophy (DMD), a severe muscle-wasting disease that is inevitably fatal in early adulthood. In contrast, dystrophin-deficient mdx mice appear physically normal despite their underlying muscle pathology. We describe mice deficient for both dystrophin and the dystrophin-related(More)
Activation of cell division in the root apical meristem after germination is essential for postembryonic root development. Arabidopsis plants homozygous for a mutation in the ROOT MERISTEMLESS1 (RML1) gene are unable to establish an active postembryonic meristem in the root apex. This mutation abolishes cell division in the root but not in the shoot. We(More)
A method is described for the inclusion of apoptotic and necrotic cells in the cell counts obtained in the cytokinesis-block micronucleus (CBMN) assay, which is conventionally used solely for the assessment of chromosome breakage, chromosome loss and frequency of dividing cells. The morphological criteria for the recognition and discrimination between(More)
Muscular dystrophies with reduced glycosylation of alpha-dystroglycan (alpha-DG), commonly referred to as dystroglycanopathies, are a heterogeneous group of autosomal recessive conditions which include a wide spectrum of clinical severity. Reported phenotypes range from severe congenital onset Walker-Warburg syndrome (WWS) with severe structural brain and(More)
Central core disease (CCD) is a congenital myopathy due to dominant mutations in the skeletal muscle ryanodine receptor gene (RYR1). The authors report three patients from two consanguineous families with symptoms of a congenital myopathy, cores on muscle biopsy, and confirmed linkage to the RYR1 locus. Molecular genetic studies in one family identified a(More)
The dystroglycanopathies are a novel group of human muscular dystrophies due to mutations in known or putative glycosyltransferase enzymes. They share the common pathological feature of a hypoglycosylated form of alpha-dystroglycan, diminishing its ability to bind extracellular matrix ligands. The LARGE glycosyltransferase is mutated in both the(More)
AIMS The quantification of protein levels in muscle biopsies is of particular relevance in the diagnostic process of neuromuscular diseases, but is difficult to assess in cases of partial protein deficiency, particularly when information on protein localization is required. The combination of immunohistochemistry and Western blotting is often used in these(More)
The congenital muscular dystrophies (CMD) are a heterogeneous group of autosomal recessive disorders. A new pathomechanism has recently been identified in a group of these disorders in which known or putative glycosyltransferases are defective. Common to all these conditions is the hypoglycosylation of alpha-dystroglycan. Fukuyama CMD, muscle-eye-brain(More)
The congenital muscular dystrophies (CMD) are a heterogeneous group of autosomal recessive disorders presenting in infancy with muscle weakness, contractures, and dystrophic changes on skeletal-muscle biopsy. Structural brain defects, with or without mental retardation, are additional features of several CMD syndromes. Approximately 40% of patients with CMD(More)
Dominant mutations in the skeletal muscle ryanodine receptor (RYR1) gene are well-recognized causes of both malignant hyperthermia susceptibility (MHS) and central core disease (CCD). More recently, recessive RYR1 mutations have been described in few congenital myopathy patients with variable pathology, including multi-minicores. Although a clinical overlap(More)