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Phenological responses to climate change differ across trophic levels, which may lead to birds failing to breed at the time of maximal food abundance. Here we investigate the population consequences of such mistiming in the migratory pied flycatcher, Ficedula hypoleuca. In a comparison of nine Dutch populations, we find that populations have declined by(More)
1. Temperament traits increasingly provide a focus for investigating the evolutionary ecology of behavioural variation. Here, we examine the underlying causes and selective consequences of individual variation in the temperament trait 'exploration behaviour in a novel environment' (EB, based on an 8-min assay) in a free-ranging population of a passerine(More)
Deterioration of reproductive traits with age is observed in an increasing number of species. Although such deterioration is often attributed to reproductive senescence, a within-individual decline in reproductive success with age, few studies on wild animals have focused on direct fitness measures while accounting for selective disappearance and terminal(More)
Predictions about the fate of species or populations under climate change scenarios typically neglect adaptive evolution and phenotypic plasticity, the two major mechanisms by which organisms can adapt to changing local conditions. As a consequence, we have little understanding of the scope for organisms to track changing environments by in situ adaptation.(More)
Ageing, long thought to be too infrequent to study effectively in natural populations, has recently been shown to be ubiquitous, even in the wild. A major challenge now is to explain variation in the rates of ageing within populations. Here, using 49 years of data from a population of great tits (Parus major), we show that offspring life-history(More)
Within populations, the expression of phenotypic traits typically varies with age. Such age-dependent trait variation can be caused by within-individual change (improvement, senescence, terminal effects) and/or selective (dis)appearance of certain phenotypes among older age classes. In this study, we applied two methods (decomposition and mixed modelling)(More)
Individual life span is the most important determinant of lifetime reproductive success and fitness across taxa. Identifying the relationships between life-history traits and survival therefore is fundamental to understanding the evolution of a species' traits. Especially important in this respect is to separate the contributions of between- and(More)
1. Longitudinal studies of various vertebrate populations have recently demonstrated senescent declines in reproductive performance and/or survival probability with age to be almost ubiquitous in nature. Little is known, however, about the extent to which rates of senescence vary between individuals, and about causes or consequences of such variation.(More)
Longitudinal studies of senescence accumulate rapidly from natural populations. However, it is largely unknown whether different fitness components senesce in parallel, how reproductive and survival senescence contribute to declines in reproductive value, and how large the fitness cost of senescence is (the difference between the observed reproductive value(More)